VALUE ADDITION | FRUITS AND VEGETABLE

What is value addition?

The value addition of Fruits and vegetables refers to the process of enhancing the value of vegetables or vegetable-based products through various means. This can be done at different stages of the supply chain, from cultivation and harvesting to processing, packaging, and marketing. Value addition in the context of vegetables typically aims to make them more appealing, nutritious, convenient, and economically beneficial for both producers and consumers.

Fruit and vegetable crops are produced in abundance in our country. India ranks second in vegetable production in the world after China. During year 21-22 India produced 107 Million Metric tones of fruits and 205 Million Metric tones of vegetables.

The area under cultivation of fruits stood at 7.05 million hectares while vegetables were cultivated at 11.35 million hectares (Source APEDA WEB).The processing capacity of vegetables in India is only 2 percent of its total production. While other developed countries like 70 percent in Brazil, 60-70 percent in America, 80 percent in Thailand, 70 percent in Philippines have vegetable processing capacity.

Every year about 30-40% of vegetable production is lost due to faulty storage system which costs Rs. 15000-17000 crore is estimated. A developing country like India cannot afford such wastage, so the Government of India and state governments have taken great efforts to prevent such wastage. Post-harvest processing of crops includes harvesting, cleaning, grading, primary processing, storage etc. Generally, vegetables spoil after 3-4 days at most. Therefore preservation is very important to prevent spoilage in vegetable crops.

VALUE ADDITION | FRUITS AND VEGETABLE

Post-harvest procedures in vegetable and Fruits:

1. Grading:

Higher market prices can be obtained for vegetables, graded based on different characteristics like crop colour, size, ripeness, variety etc. Grading equipment is available in some vegetables which can save labor cost in grading.

VALUE ADDITION | FRUITS AND VEGETABLE

VALUE ADDITION | FRUITS AND VEGETABLE

2. Packaging:

Generally no special care is taken for packing of vegetables. Hence, by the time vegetables reach from the farmer to the consumer, 20 to 40 percent spoils. As vegetables contain 70 to 90 percent water, they quickly dry out/rot in normal environments, causing them to fall off and spoil. Packing is important for transporting vegetables from the farm to the consumer as well as for market demand.

The purpose of packaging of vegetables is for their storage, transport and preservation of their quality. Vegetables lose their freshness in a short period of time due to the rapid rate of respiration and transpiration processes leading to wilting. A cold water treatment or vaccinating treatment of fruits and vegetables (eg brinjal, tomato) prior to packaging keeps the surface of the fruit shiny. After grading, systematic packing should be done according to specific number or weight status. There are many types of packing available in the market. E.g. Wooden box, plastic box, bags, corrugated box etc.

VALUE ADDITION | FRUITS AND VEGETABLE

VALUE ADDITION | FRUITS AND VEGETABLE

3. Storage:

Most of the post-harvest losses in vegetable crops occur during storage, the main reason is the humidity and temperature in the crop. If store for long time and maintain good quality If so, crop maturity and harvest are also very important factors. Post-harvest spoilage of mature crops is rapid and high. Maturity can be checked in several ways. E.g.

It can be done by checking external appearance and chemical composition. Vegetables are mostly stored at low temperature in air-conditioned storage chambers. So that the heat generated in the crop can be prevented by slowing down the respiration of the crop. Thus microbial decay can also be prevented. Also the quality and freshness of the crop can be maintained for a long time. Storage depends on factors like variety, maturity, storage, temperature, atmospheric humidity, carbon dioxide deposition.

Further, if the moisture content is maintained precisely in such storage, weight loss can also be prevented. So the physical structure of vegetables does not change. But this specific low temperature and humidity, called storage condition is different for each vegetable (Table No.1). It is very important to store at storage condition to maintain shelf life and quality.

VALUE ADDITION | FRUITS AND VEGETABLE

Table No.1 Storage conditions for different vegetable crops

SNName of vegetable

 

Storage conditions

 

Storage period

in Months

Temperature (C)

 

Moisture (Percent)

 

1Carrot1

 

95-98

 

6-7
2Cabbage0-1

 

95

 

8
3Flower1

 

95-98

 

1
4Leafy Vegetables0.5-1

 

95

 

7-10
5Tomato7-8

 

85

 

10-15
6Potato1-3

 

95

 

6-8
7Sweet potato11-12

 

85-90

 

3
8Other types (roots)3

 

95

 

6-8
9Garlic – Onion (dry)Ventilated storage

In normal condition

 

VALUE ADDITION | FRUITS AND VEGETABLE

What is called Controlled Atmospheric Storage (CA Storage)?

Most of the cold storages we have out there are temperature controlled. When humidity is not controlled, the usefulness of such cold storages is limited. So such cold storages are used only for potatoes, tamarind, pulses, jaggery, apples, milk products, dry fruits etc. But does not show effective results for vegetables. In the modern storage system, the amount of carbon dioxide and nitrogen dioxide is also maintained along with low temperature and humidity. However, such collections are very expensive. But it can make a very effective collection. This is called Controlled Atmospheric Storage (CA Storage).

Onion-Garlic is mainly dried in well-ventilated rooms (ventilated storage). A platform is usually built above the ground to dry onions on a small scale storage is done by digging piles and tying them in fixed quantities or hanging them on a support (by coin method) between the piles, in which weight loss and spoilage rate are also good.

While on a large scale, effective storage can be done in the Meda system. In which, leafless onions are stored in piles on a platform with strips of sticks three to four feet above the ground (with space between the strips) inside a room with about 70-75 percent ventilation. Generally, if such medas are built long and seasonally in the direction of wind movement, good results are obtained. Fields should be well ventilated and moisture able to drain rainwater quickly. The onions kept inside the meda should be checked from time to time and the rotten and weak onions should be removed.

VALUE ADDITION | FRUITS AND VEGETABLE

VALUE ADDITION | FRUITS AND VEGETABLE

4. Dryness:

Most vegetable crops have an initial moisture content as high as 70-90 percent. Vegetables spoil quickly in normal environment due to excessive humidity. So if this water (moisture) is removed artificially, it can be prevented from spoiling. For this, the drying done by solar power, which is abundantly available in our country, is very good and cheap. Eg green fenugreek, ginger, turmeric, okra, guar etc.

After drying, some special process has to be done during drying to maintain the quality of vegetables and increase the storage capacity. Nowadays almost every type of vegetable is dried. And as there is a good demand for such dried vegetables in foreign countries, drying is also done mechanically. Dried vegetables can be preserved in fresh form i.e. in slices or in round slabs or by making powder and air-tight packing for 6 to 8 months. Put in warm water at the time of use, after some time it returns to the shape and size of the basic situation and can be used as a salad, vegetable or even as a side dish.

During drying, first select sufficiently mature, uniform size, color, shape, and weight, disease-free vegetables and wash them with clean water, then peel them. Depending on the type of vegetable used for peeling, the method is manual (with a paddle), abrasive peeler type machine (potato, carrot, sweet potato), heat in hot water (potato, tomato) or lye liquid (carrot, sweet potato). By dipping in lye liquid for 1 to 2 minutes and letting it cool, the peel can be removed by normal pressure or friction.

VALUE ADDITION | FRUITS AND VEGETABLE

What is Dressing?

After peeling, its non-edible parts are removed which is called dressing. After that it is sliced or pieces of suitable thickness. Slices or pieces are subjected to blanching or chemical treatment or both depending on the type of vegetable. Vegetables like onion, brinjal, sweet potato that contain volatile oils or enzymes that change flavor or color when exposed to air are dipped in water. Also, after peeling vegetables like garlic, ginger, they are dried directly without cutting or slicing. Sometimes dry to reduce time, vegetables like garlic are dried after making small holes with needles.

VALUE ADDITION | FRUITS AND VEGETABLE

What is Blanching?

During the drying of vegetables, their color is preserved, they are not damaged by fungi and pests and to increase the storage power, the slices or pieces of vegetables are cooled by heating them in hot water or steam for 2 to 5 minutes. This is called blanching. Moreover, depending on the type of vegetables, after blanching, they are immersed in 0.5 percent sulfur solution for 1 to 1.5 hours to improve color and quality (eggplant, cabbage), while pieces or slices of vegetables like carrots, onions are kept in 3 to 4 percent salt solution for 2 to 4 minutes.

Potato pieces or slices are blanched for 3 to 5 minutes in a hot solution of 0.05 percent potassium metabisulfite. Onion- Garlic is not subjected to chemical blanching treatment, only onion slices are kept in clean water. So that the sugar in it dissolves in water and its color does not change during heat (during drying). Tomato, okra and bhaji are dried by blanching in hot water only.

After chemical and blanching treatment, the vegetable pieces or slices are dried depending on the type of vegetable, it is dried to the final moisture content. Which is usually kept as 4 to 6 percent. The quality and storage capacity of dried vegetables depends on the process given to it, heat applied during drying, drying time, drying method and final moisture content. The quality of dried vegetables is determined on the basis of shrinkage of slices or pieces, moisture content, aroma, color and increase in weight and size when immersed in warm water.

If sun drying is to be done, the slices should be stone dried in a single layer on wooden trays. So that each slice gets enough heat and dries in less time. As drying in the sun takes more time, be careful not to get fungus or moths during drying. Due to uneven heating during solar drying, drying time is increased and the final moisture content is not reduced to a suitable level, resulting in poor quality and storage capacity.

VALUE ADDITION | FRUITS AND VEGETABLE

What is mechanical method drying?

In mechanical method drying is done by heated air. Conveyor belt or tray type dryers are used in this method. In the mechanical method, uniform drying takes place at a certain temperature, in a short time, and the final moisture content remains within the prescribed limits, so its quality and storage power are good.

Also, in the mechanical method, as the last 6 to 8 percent moisture is removed with normal compressed air, shrinkage in the size of the pieces or slices is reduced and the color also does not fade. Mechanical drying is done in one or several stages. Drying done in a single stage while drying done in different stages is usually done at a single temperature of 30-50 C happens While the drying in different stages takes place at different temperatures from 60 to 90 C.

The weight of the combustible material after drying, called recovery, is the main basis of the TSS contained within the vegetable. So varieties with higher TSS content are more suitable for better recovery.

VALUE ADDITION | FRUITS AND VEGETABLE

5. Dehydration:

Dehydration is also a form of dryness. In which most of the water in the product is dried. At present, the process of exporting onion and garlic powder is very popular. It earns a lot of foreign exchange.

VALUE ADDITION | FRUITS AND VEGETABLE

VALUE ADDITION | FRUITS AND VEGETABLE

6. Canning:

The process of packing fruits and vegetables in containers for preservation purposes is called canning. Heat is applied to sterilize the cans before and after packing. So that it cannot be contaminated by microorganisms. Also outside germs cannot enter inside. Canning preserves proteins, carbohydrates, vitamins and minerals and preserves food for a longer period of time.

In the canning of vegetables, the vegetables are washed well, pulp, peel, seeds etc. are cut into uniform size pieces. After that, blanching is done and it is filled in the box. After that, brine solution (salt + sugar + water in fixed quantity) is added to it, the filled cans are sealed and sterilized in such a way that they are completely submerged. Canning is especially useful in okra, chillies, cabbage etc. Sometimes vegetable ketchup can be prepared and preserved for a long time in different forms. Especially tomato which is prepared by heating with various condiments like pepper-spices, vinegar, garlic-onion, sugar.

7. What is Preservation? :

The process of storing different types of fruits and vegetables in their original form or by making preparations thereof is called preservation.

Advantages of the Preservation:

1. Prevent national waste:

Fruits and vegetables are produced in villages. As there is no cold storage and adequate transportation system, a lot of grain (approximately 30-40 percent) is wasted. This spoilage can be prevented if a cottage industry of fruit and vegetable preservation is developed to prevent this spoilage.

2. Seasonal use:

Fruits and vegetables are available cheaply according to their season. But some types of fruits and vegetables are difficult to get out of season. Foods can be used anytime if fruits and vegetables are preserved when they are cheap in season. E.g.The juice of mango, lemon, orange, tomato, etc. can be stored for whole year by chemical process and can be used anytime.

3. Earn Foreign Exchange:

Fruits and vegetables can earn foreign exchange if they are sent abroad in their original form or processed.

4. Solve the problem of unemployment

The number of unemployment in our country is increasing day by day. Employment opportunities are decreasing. In such circumstances unemployment problem can be mitigated by giving employment to unemployed youths by setting up FOOD PROCESSING industries on fruit/vegetable preservation.

5. Useful in military power:

The military strength of any country depends on its deficit defense industry. Since no food other than situational deficit food can be sent to the troops in wartime, it is imperative for every country to develop a deficit prevention industry to maintain its military strength.

Different Methods of Vegetable preservation:

  1. By physical Method
  2. By chemical process
  3. By fermentation
  4. Use of fresh vegetable juice

VALUE ADDITION | FRUITS AND VEGETABLE

 1. By physical Method

    (a) At low temperature or by heating

  1. Pasurization, Freezing, Dehydrofreezing, Carbonation, Sterilization, Processing etc.

    (b) By high temperature

  1. Pasurization, sterilization, processing etc

    (c) By removing water

  1. 4. By solar power, dehydration, puff drying, construction etc

   (d) By radiation

VALUE ADDITION | FRUITS AND VEGETABLE

  

VALUE ADDITION | FRUITS AND VEGETABLE

By ultraviolet rays

(e) Vacuum packing: In this method vegetables can be kept fresh and green for a long time. For which the amount of oxygen is reduced to 2.5 percent through vacuum. So respiration slows down. And the storage capacity of vegetables increases. In addition, gases like carbon dioxide and nitrogen are added from outside in this process. This method is excellent. Because vacuum packing is done in polyethylene bags. So the cost of packing materials does not cost much.

2. By chemical process:-

(a) By adding chemicals (via sodium metabisulphate)

(b) With salt solution

(a) By heating (jam, jelly) after adding sugar.

(d) With vinegar or lactic acid

VALUE ADDITION | FRUITS AND VEGETABLE

VALUE ADDITION AND POST HARVEST MANAGEMENT | FRUITS AND VEGETABLE

3. By fermentation

Vegetables can also be preserved for a long time by making pickles, ketchup, sauces or chutneys. Different types of fruits and vegetables are preserved in fresh form or in the form of pickles in an oiled medium by adding salt, vinegar, pepper – spices and removing peels, seeds etc. Often vegetables like tomato are peeled, without seeds or with salt, pepper-spice, sugar, vinegar, garlic-onion, heated and concentrated and stored in an airtight bottle in the form of ketchup. Pectin is also added to thicken ketchup and if cream and butter are added to it and heated, it can also be made into a sauce and can be stored for a short period of time. In which pepper-spices and edible oil are stored. E.g. Tomato, carrot, chilli, onion etc.

VALUE ADDITION | FRUITS AND VEGETABLE

4.  Use of fresh vegetable juice:-

Just like the fresh juice of fruits, different types of vegetables like tomato, mint, coriander, carrot, palkh etc. can be extracted and sold for good profit. Thus, if appropriate methods are adopted during the various post-harvest processes of vegetables, the loss after harvesting of vegetables can be prevented. Losses can be reduced by 20 percent only through proper storage. There are huge opportunities to export vegetables by processing them as much as possible. By which the farmers get full compensation for their produce and the economic system of the country also becomes viable. Apart from this, employment opportunities can also be increased.

VALUE ADDITION | FRUITS AND VEGETABLE

Summary:

Value addition is the process of enhancing the value of vegetables through cultivation, harvesting, processing, packaging, and marketing. India ranks second in vegetable production globally, with a total of 107 million metric tones of fruits and 205 million metric tones of vegetables. The processing capacity of vegetables in India is only 2% of its total production, with other developed countries having higher processing capacities. Post-harvest processing of crops includes harvesting, cleaning, grading, primary processing, storage, and marketing. Preservation is crucial to prevent spoilage in vegetable crops. Post-harvest procedures include grading, packaging, storage, and moisture.

Preservation can be done through cold water treatment or vaccinating treatment before packaging, and systematic packing according to specific weight status. Storage conditions for different vegetable crops include temperature, humidity, and temperature. Dried vegetables can be preserved in fresh form or in powder and air-tight packing for 6-8 months. Preservation methods include physical methods, chemical processes, fermentation, and the use of fresh vegetable juice. By developing a cottage industry for fruit and vegetable preservation, countries can prevent national waste, ensure seasonal use, earn foreign exchange, address unemployment, and enhance military strength.

VALUE ADDITION | FRUITS AND VEGETABLE

VALUE ADDITION | FRUITS AND VEGETABLE

FAQs

1.What is value addition in vegetables?

Ans: The value addition of vegetables refers to the process of enhancing the value of vegetables or vegetable-based products through various means. This can be done at different stages of the supply chain, from cultivation and harvesting to processing, packaging, and marketing. Value addition in the context of vegetables typically aims to make them more appealing, nutritious, convenient, and economically beneficial for both producers and consumers.

2. What is Dressing?

ANS. After peeling, its non-edible parts are removed which is called dressing. After that it is sliced or pieces of suitable thickness. Slices or pieces are subjected to blanching or chemical treatment or both depending on the type of vegetable. Vegetables like onion, brinjal, sweet potato that contain volatile oils or enzymes that change flavor or color when exposed to air are dipped in water. Also, after peeling vegetables like garlic, ginger, they are dried directly without cutting or slicing. Sometimes dry to reduce time, vegetables like garlic are dried after making small holes with needles.

3. What is Blanching?

Ans. During the drying of vegetables, their color is preserved, they are not damaged by fungi and pests and to increase the storage power, the slices or pieces of vegetables are cooled by heating them in hot water or steam for 2 to 5 minutes. This is called blanching.

4. What are the different methods of value addition?

ANS: Grading,Packaging,Storage,Driying,Dressing,Blanching, Canning,Dehydration etc.

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