Tips to Reduce Crop Production Costs and Maximize Profit

Tips to Reduce Crop Production Costs and Maximize Profit

Tips to Reduce Crop Production Costs and Maximize Profit

Introduction

Most of the country’s population is dependent on agriculture. In today’s information and technology era, there is a campaign from all sides to get more income from agriculture. As a result, overuse of farm inputs to get more produce, farming expenses of the farmers increase, the farmer does not get the expected income and in sum, the farmer is ruined.

In order to solve this situation, the following points should be considered to increase the income by reducing the cost of farming without affecting the farm production.

Land Preparations

  • Avoid unnecessary, over-expenditure on land preparation.
  • Mix drilling of fertilizer and seed using seed driller can save cost of applying fertilizer.
  • By using multi-tasking farm implements, sowing, weeding, fencing etc. can be done at a time and costs are reduced.
  • Terracing rather than leveling steep land can save a lot of money on tractors. Such land can be irrigated by sprinkler or drip system without flattening.
  • Unnecessary frequent intercropping increases the cost of farming.

Tips to Reduce Crop Production Costs and Maximize Profit

Baby’s breath (Gypsophila paniculata) Greenhouse Cultivation

Seed

  • Always use pure, certified, guaranteed seed for sowing.
  • Keep the seed rate optimum or as per recommendation, using too much seeds increases the cost of farming.
  • Many farmers choose very large seeds for sowing in crops such as groundnut, which increases seed costs.
  • Using low-fertilizing seeds reduces plant numbers, requires higher seeding rates, and increases farming costs.
  • Deep or shallow seeding results in lower yield and increases the cost of cultivation. Have to sow again. So small seeds should be sown at a shallow depth but in such a way that they get moisture and big seeds should be sown a little deeper.
  • Sowing with seed cum fertilizer drill (combined seeder) saves cost of seed.
  • Sowing after seed treatment provides better growth and saves on additional costs like Gap filling.
  • Application of fungicides, germicides and insecticides to control seed borne diseases caused by fungi, bacteria and other microbes. E.g. In pulses, 3 grams of fungicide like captan or thirum per kilogram of seed should be applied to the seeds before sowing.
  • Pre-sowing application of chlorpyriphos insecticide 750 ml per 100 kg of seed to prevent termite infestation in wheat.
  • To control bacterial disease of paddy 1 kg seed should be treated with 6 grams of streptocycline.
  • Buying seeds of recommended varieties from a trusted organization with a bill can avoid fraud and wrongful expenditure.
  • Use of appropriate seed/tuber rate in crops like sugarcane, potato can reduce cost of seed.

Crop type

  • Select improved crop varieties or hybrid varieties for higher production after crop selection.
  • Select disease resistant varieties can reduce pest infestation and reduce farming costs.
  • Selection of varieties resistant to water scarcity in dry areas can reduce water requirement.

Tips to Reduce Crop Production Costs and Maximize Profit

Tips to Reduce Crop Production Costs and Maximize Profit

Sowing time

  • Timely sowing is very important in every crop.
  • It is also important to consider which variety to choose?
  • An Early or late sowing varieties. E.g. For timely sowing of wheat (around November 15).

Sowing method

  • After sowing the crop, thinning and gap filling is necessary, which maintain the number of plants per unit area thereby  increase the crop production.
  • In saline soils, crop production can be increased by reducing the effect of salinity by sowing crops in the middle of the embankment by adopting the no-cultivation method.
  • Sowing in furrows rather than broadcasting of seeds can increase yield and elimination of weeds by intercropping.

Also Read……..Drumstick Farming (Moringa)


Fertilizers:

  • As per soil health card, apply as much as fertilizers required by crop.
  • After calculating the total requirement of fertilizer, planning to get 65 percent of the total required nutrients from chemical fertilizers, 25 percent nutrients from organic fertilizers and 10 percent nutrients from Bio fertilizers, so that the health of the soil will be maintained and the cost of agriculture will be reduced.
  • Pulses, oilseed crops, spices and vegetable crops require low fertilizers, for such crops use only organic fertilizers such as cow dung, vermi compost, manure or pressmud, so soil fertility can be maintained with economic savings.
  • Apply phosphorus or potassium fertilizers at the time of sowing, not as supplementary fertilizers later.
  • Maintenance of PSB culture to convert unavailable phosphorus in soil into available form.
  • Applying chemical fertilizers deep in the furrow to the root zone increases fertilizer efficiency.
  • Apply urea as supplemental fertilizer after watering the crop or when the soil has sufficient moisture.
  • When the crop has turned yellow, do not use urea or ammonium sulphate fertilizers unnecessarily without knowing the exact reasons.
  • Do not give unnecessary supplementary fertilizers to crops like tobacco, sugarcane, paddy, cotton etc.
  • Apply the micronutrients that are deficient in the crop by getting the soil tested or getting confirmation from an agronomist. Using composite grade nutrients found in the market with unnecessary multiple elements leads to false costs.
  • Organic fertilizers and vermicompost available in the market are very expensive to buy, so make your own compost from agricultural waste.
  • Scientific recommendations for liquid micronutrients and root growth enhancers/hormones available in the market along with water are largely lacking. Hence the consumption of such agricultural inputs greatly increases the cost of farming.
  • Application of chemical fertilizers in the heat of summer before sowing leads to wastage of fertilizers and increases the cost of farming. Proper use of chemical fertilizers gives a full return on the money spent on it. Waste of fertilizer stops. Farming costs come down. Production is increased by applying chemical fertilizers only when the soil is still moist and incorporating them into the soil after application. Many farmers spray composite grade soluble fertilizers imported from abroad in standing crops which do not significantly increase crop production. But the cost of farming increases a lot.
  • Use of organic fertilizers available at very low cost like Rhizobium, Azatobacter, Azospirillum, Phosphate culture is mandatory so that the cost of chemical fertilizers is reduced. Thus, by using organic fertilizers available at nominal cost, about 25 percent of chemical fertilizers can be saved.
  • Use of sulphur containing fertilizers (gypsum or single super phosphate) for oil or pulse crops.

Fodder Sorghum (Jowar) Farming

Tips to Reduce Crop Production Costs and Maximize Profit

Tips to Reduce Crop Production Costs and Maximize Profit

Irrigation

  • Drip and sprinkler system saves water usage and in the long run this system becomes beneficial.
  • Use proper size pipes to conserve energy in engine pump sets.
  • Using cement HDPE pipelines instead of raw canal to carry water results in to water saving.
  • Increasing soil moisture storage capacity saves irrigation water.
  • Use of water according to soil type, crop and weather.
  • Do not over-irrigate unnecessarily.
  • Irrigating the crop during shoot development, flowering, grain setting and grain development stages of the crop generally increases yield. Crops like wheat, sugarcane, cotton etc. require more water.
  • In crops like groundnut, irrigating at 50 percent available moisture gives good production. In cotton crop, if water is given when the bolls on the plant are 20 days old prevent small bolls fall off.
  • If water is given when the wheat crop is about to ripen, the moisture content of the wheat grain increases. If the amount of water is given in excess amount in cumin and isabgul crops, the production is greatly affected due to the increase of disease.
  • In addition, when there is a severe water shortage, providing irrigation in response to crop crisis situations provides economic benefits by preventing further loss and sustaining production.
  • Alternate layer irrigation saves irrigation water and helps control pests and weeds.
  • Using organic waste (grass, leaves or straw) as mulch between two rows of crops can reduce weeds and control weeds.
  • Planting in twin rows.
  • Keeping the slope of the land right so that irrigation can be given easily.
  • Don’t keep bed too long, keeping it too long causes water to sink deep into the soil through the gills and wastes water.
  • Increase the moisture storage capacity of the soil by adding organic fertilizers to the soil.

Also Read……..SILAGE-GREEN FODDER PICKLE FOR CATTLE


Weed Control

  • Total cost of weed control can be reduced if herbicides like bio-herbicides are used for weed control.
  • Weed control can also be achieved to a large extent by adopting the concept of crop rotation for weed control. For example, cereals can be followed by pulses that spread quickly over the soil and control weeds.
  • Application of herbicides in canal is not effective, so herbicides should be mixed with drip irrigation and given to the crop, thereby reduce cost of the crop production.

Tips to Reduce Crop Production Costs and Maximize Profit

Tips to Reduce Crop Production Costs and Maximize Profit

Pest Control

  • Take control measures when diseases and pests are identified.
  • Choose the suitable pesticide. Do not use more pesticides into the pump than recommended.
  • Spraying more than one pesticides at a time increases the cost.
  • Spraying unknown, unrecommended hormones/enhancers to increase the yield of the crop or to increase the yield can increases the cost of farming, so that hormones should not be used without proper understanding/knowledge.
  • Addition of soap solution or commercially available stickers to the pesticides pump to increase the effectiveness of the pesticides gives a full return on the money spent.
  • Proper maintenance of pesticides spraying equipment can prevent wastage of money spent on pesticides.
  • Use the quantity of pesticides in the pump as per recommendation and keep proper amount of water per hectare. Many farmers spray pesticides even if there is a very small amount of pests, so that the cost increases.
  • Adopt an integrated pest control approach rather than just using pesticides for pest control. In addition to the use of pesticides, pheromone traps, protection against parasites and predators, and the use of herbal pesticides provide more returns at low cost.
  • Farmers spray only the upper leaves while spraying. Hence spraying in such a way that the plants are thoroughly soaked which gives a full return of the expenditure incurred on the pesticides.
  • Power Sprayer, Tractor mounted sprayer saves labor cost as compared to using hand pump sprayer.
  • Using Light trap for the control of insects such as hairy caterpillar etc. can reduce the cost of pesticides.
  • Applying soil-based pesticides to control termites and other soil-borne pests gives a full return on investment.
  • Instead of leaving pesticide spraying works to the hands of the farm laborers, the farmer in his presence under the necessary guidance can save the cost.
  • Farming costs can be reduced by using neem seeds, leaves, oil instead of neem insecticides available in the market.
  • Adopting an integrated pest control system reduces pesticide costs.

Tips to Reduce Crop Production Costs and Maximize Profit

Tips to Reduce Crop Production Costs and Maximize Profit

Harvesting and storage

  • Harvesting crop at the actual stage of maturity.
  • Delay in harvesting leads to seed loss and reduced grain quality.
  • Early harvesting results in low grain weight, shriveled grain and reduced quality.
  • Using machines like harvester, reaper, thresher for harvesting reduces the labor cost.
  • Grading and storage of produce can fetch good market price.
  • By drying and storing the grains till 8 to 10 percent moisture content, pest infestation during storage in the storage tank can be reduced.
  • Tripartite agreements under contract farming system, where new crops are introduced and market arrangements are not known can solve the issue of sale.
  • Contacting appropriate agencies to certify farm produce obtained through organic farming and obtain certification.
  • More income can be obtained by selling the agricultural produce obtained through organic farming through voluntary organizations.

Value addition of farm produce

  • Conversion of farm produce as a cottage industry as per the availability and demand of near local market on a small scale can increase the income considerably.
  • For this technical guidance, loans, assistance etc. are available from local banks, district industrial centers etc.
  • Farmers can earn additional income by developing small scale home industry of fried channa, mamra, paua, papad, khari sing, farsan, packed edible masala, pickles, various products of fruits and vegetables and it can also provide employment to family members.

Tips to Reduce Crop Production Costs and Maximize Profit

Tips to Reduce Crop Production Costs and Maximize Profit

 Loan and Advances:

  • Insisting on getting credit from the bank itself and not taking money at interest from unauthorized lenders.
  • Adoption of Kisan Credit Card.

FAQs:

1. How farmers can reduce crop production cost and maximize yield?

Ans.: By following certain practices as under farmers can reduce crop production cost and maximize yield • Proper take care in Land preparation • Selection of suitable varieties of crops • Sowing crop at right time • Selection of improved and high yielding varieties of crops • Irrigate crop at Critical Growth stages • Optimum spacing between row and plants • Weed Management • Minimum use of Chemical Fertilizers • Adoption of Integrated Pest Management techniques • Effective control of Insect-Pest and Diseases • Harvesting at right time • Post-harvest management • Value addition of crop produce for higher yield • Digital Marketing etc

2. What is the role of Pest control in maximizing crop yield?

• Choose the suitable pesticide. Do not use more pesticides into the pump than recommended. • Spraying more than one pesticides at a time increases the cost. • Addition of soap solution or commercially available stickers to the drug pump to increase the effectiveness of the drugs gives a full return on the money spent. • Proper maintenance of pesticides spraying equipment can prevent wastage of money spent on pesticides. • Use the quantity of pesticides in the pump as per recommendation and keep proper amount of water per hectare. Many farmers spray pesticides even if there is a very small amount of pests, so that the cost increases. • Adopt an integrated pest control approach rather than just using pesticides for pest control. In addition to the use of pesticides, pheromone traps, protection against parasites and predators, and the use of herbal pesticides provide more returns at low cost. • Farmers spray only the upper leaves while spraying. Hence spraying in such a way that the plants are thoroughly soaked which gives a full return of the expenditure incurred on the pesticides. • Using Light trap for the control of insects such as hairy caterpillar etc. can reduce the cost of pesticides. • Instead of leaving pesticide spraying works to the hands of the farm laborers, the farmer in his presence under the necessary guidance can save the cost. • Farming costs can be reduced by using neem seeds, leaves, oil instead of neem insecticides available in the market. • Adopting an integrated pest control system reduces pesticide costs.

3. What is the role of Irrigation in maximizing crop yield?

• Drip and sprinkler system saves water usage and in the long run this system becomes beneficial. • Using cement HDPE pipelines instead of raw canal to carry water results in to water saving. • Use of water according to soil type, crop and weather. Do not over-irrigate unnecessarily. • Irrigating the crop during shoot development, flowering, grain setting and grain development stages of the crop generally increases yield. Crops like wheat, sugarcane, cotton etc. require more water. • In addition, when there is a severe water shortage, providing irrigation in response to crop crisis situations provides economic benefits by preventing further loss and sustaining production. • Increase the moisture storage capacity of the soil by adding organic fertilizers to the soil.

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