Sweet Potatoes Farming-Short term Winter Vine Crop

Sweet Potatoes Farming-Short term Winter Vine Crop

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Introduction and Usages of Sweet potatoes:

  • Scientific name of Sweet potato is Ipomoea batatas.
  • Sweet potatoes is a tuber vine vegetable crop belonging to the Convolvulaceae
  • Origin of sweet potatoes is North America.
  • The sweet potato tuber is a collectable transformation of the root.
  • It is used mainly as food and to make starch and alcohol.
  • The tuber contains 27 to 30% starch, sugars and vitamins A, B and C in good proportion.
  • Yellow and orange colored tubers are high in carotene content.
  • Usually after 60 days of sowing, the top 15 cm of the vines can be cut off and used as cattle fodder.
  • Its tubers are rich in carbohydrates and calories.
  • Its leaves are triangular in shape.
  • Its fruits are like castor ball and contain black seeds.
  • Sweet potatoes have flowers of various colors ranging from white to purple, they can be plucked and removed after flowering.

Sweet potatoes Area under Cultivation and Production in World

  • Sweet potatoes is cultivated in 100 lakh hectares in world under vegetable crops. (Google.com).
  • The total cultivated area under sweet potato is 6.10 lakh hectares from which 100 lakh tonnes are produced. (Google.com).
  • China is the leader in the cultivation and production of sweet potatoes. (Google.com).
  • More than 80 percent of the area is in Asian countries. (Google.com).

Sweet potatoes Area under Cultivation and Production in India

  • The total area under vegetable crops in India is 90 lakh hectares, out of which 1600 lakh tonnes of production is obtained. (Google.com).
  • The area under sweet potato crop in India is 50 lakh hectares, with a production of 15.50 lakh tonnes and productivity of 12 tonnes per hectare (Google.com).
  • In India, sweet potato is cultivated commercially in Odisha, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Assam, Maharashtra and Gujarat. (Google.com).
  • Maharashtra is the leading state in productivity (14 tonnes/ha). (Google.com).

Also Read…..Tips to Reduce Crop Production Costs and Maximize Profit


Sweet Potatoes Farming-Short term Winter Vine Crop

Sweet Potatoes Farming-Short term Winter Vine Crop

Sweet potatoes Climate Requirement:

  • During the long growing season of four to five months, the crop experiences a normal warm humid climate.
  • A temperature between 21° to 27°C is more suitable for crop growth and high tuber production.
  • High rainfall and long photoperiod days increase vine growth and decrease tuber production.
  • Short photoperiod days are favorable for production.
  • Well distributed rainfall and sunny weather are essential for sweet potato cultivation.
  • The sweet potato crop can tolerate dry weather.
  • Also it can withstand water shortage, but frost damages the crop.

Sweet potatoes land preparation

  • The roots of sweet potatoes are 120 to 180 cm deep in the soil.
  • Although sweet potatoes are best suited to light soils, they are also grown in well-drained medium black soils.
  • Tuber growth is stunted in heavy black soil. Besides, the labor cost is also high while digging sweet potatoes from the soil in such soil.
  • In sandy soil, sweet potato tubers are thin and long.
  • Whereas in over-fertilized soil, sweet potato plant growth increases and tuber growth decreases.

Fodder Sorghum (Jowar) Farming

Sweet potatoes Improved Varieties

 (1) Collection 71 (Navsari Agriculture University, Navsari, Gujarat)

  • The tubers of this variety of sweet potatoes are red in color.
  • The pulp of the tuber is white in color.
  • Average tuber production is 28 tonnes/ha.

(2) Cross-4 (Navsari Agriculture University, Navsari, Gujarat)

  • The tubers of this variety are white in color.
  • The flesh of the tuber is buttery white.
  • Average tuber production is 32 tonnes/ha.

(3) Pusa white

  • The tubers of this variety of sweet potatoes are white-skinned.
  • The flesh of the raw tuber is white in color, which turns buttery white after boiling.
  • Sweet in taste.

(4) Pusa Sunehari

  • The tubers of this variety are long and they are brown in color.
  • The color of the tuber is yellow
  • After steaming has an attractive yellowish orange color.
  • The tubers are sweet in taste.
  • The tubers of this variety are high in carotene.

(5) Pusa Lal

  • Tubers are medium to thick in size.
  • The color of the bark is red and the color of the pulp is white.

Besides above mentioned varities CO-3-4, Pusa Bharti, Pusa Harit, Kisan, Kalamegh, Konkan Ashwini, Sri Nandini, Sri Vardhini, Sri Rethna, Sri Arun, Sri Varun, Sri Kanka, Sri Dhara, VL Shakkarkand-6, Rajendra Shakkarkand- 5, 35, 43, 47 etc are considered promising at national level.


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Sweet Potatoes Farming-Short term Winter Vine Crop

Sweet Potatoes Farming-Short term Winter Vine Crop

Sweet potatoes Improved varieties with yellow and orange pulp

  • Gauri:
  • The tubers of this type of sweet potato are light brown in color.
  • The color of raw tuber pulp is dark orange.
  • It contains carotene content of 4.5 to 5.5 mg/100 g and starch content of 16.5%.
  • CIP-440120:
  • These sweet potatoes have yellow skinned tubers.
  • The color of raw tuber pulp is orange.
  • The amount of carotene in it is 5.6 to 6.8 mg per100 grams and has a starch content of 17.8 to 18.8%.
  • The average yield of this variety is recorded as 30 tonnes per hectare.

(3)  ST-14:

  • The sweet potato tubers of this variety have yellow skin.
  • The color of raw tuber pulp is dark orange.
  • It has carotene content of 11.5 to 12.5 mg/100 grams.
  • The production of this variety is recorded as 24 tonnes per hectare.

(4) CIP-440038:

  • The sweet potato tubers of this variety are white skinned.
  • The color of the pulp in the raw tuber is orange.
  • The amount of carotene in it is 20.02 mg/100 grams.
  • The average yield of this variety is recorded as 25 to 35 tonnes per hectare.

(5) Kamala Sundari:

  • The sweet potato tubers of this variety have orange skin.
  • The color of raw tuber pulp is dark orange.
  • Carotene content is 8.2 mg/100 g and starch content is 15.33%.
  • The average production of this variety is recorded as 27 tonnes per hectare.

Apart from this varieties like CIP SWA-2 and 362-7 are found suitable in our area. Additionally, in a field with high bollworm infestation, bollworm control can be achieved by planting Shree Bhadra variety of sweet potato around the main variety.

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Sweet Potatoes Farming-Short term Winter Vine Crop

Sweet Potatoes Farming-Short term Winter Vine Crop

Sweet potatoes Vines Preparation for planting:

  • A total of two nursery are required for sowing sweet potatoes. (Period of three months)
  • Sweet potatoes are usually transplanted from vine cuttings obtained after digging up the tubers during harvesting of the previous season’s sweet potato crop.
  • But to get high quality production of sweet potato, the planting should be prepared in selected vines before planting.
  • For which, during the harvesting of sweet potato, select healthy, pest-free tubers of medium size with the properties of that variety and plant them in the first row.
  • Prepare 100 square meters First nursery for sowing of 01 hectare of land
  • In the prepared nursery sow vine at a distance of 60 cm x 20 cm with depth of 8 to 10 cm.
  • Take necessary irrigation, weed and pest control measures after planting.
  • After 40 to 45 days from the sowing, the prepared vines are cut in 20 to 30 cm length and sow in the second nursery at distance of 60 x 20 cm.
  • In the second nursery sow 500 square meter area for one hectare of land.
  • After 45 days, new vines prepared in this second nursery can be used for sweet potato planting.
  • 20 to 30 cm long pieces are good, prepared from top and middle part of vine.
  • As far as possible avoid using the lower part of the vine for transplanting.

Sweet potatoes Vine requirement and care:

  • One hectare of sweet potato requires 1.5 to 2 tons of vines or 83,333 vine pieces.
  • Dilute 10 ml Dimethoate in 10 liters of water and dipping the vine pieces for 10 to 15 minutes in the diluted solution save the plants from pests such as bugs, scale etc.

Sweet potatoes Sowing:

  • Winter sowing is done in October-November while monsoon sowing is done in June-July.
  • Planting of sweet potato is done in flat fields in light and well-drained soil.
  • When in heavy soil at a distance of 45 to 60 cm on the prepared embankment
  • Vine pieces are planted at a distance of 20 to 25 cm on both sides of the wide cushions.
  • Prepare vine pieces of 25 to 30 cm for planting.
  • Each piece should have at least 4 to 5 knots.
  • Sometimes the cuttings are also planted vertically or horizontally.

Sweet Potatoes Farming-Short term Winter Vine Crop

Sweet Potatoes Farming-Short term Winter Vine Crop

Sweet potatoes Integrated Fertilizer System:

  • 10 to 15 tons of well decomposed Farm yard manure per hectare should be mixed well in the soil at the time of primary cultivation and 37.5 kg Nitrogen, 50 kg phosphorus and 75 kg Potash per hectare in base
  • 5 kg Nitrogen should be given 30 days after planting.
  • By using organic fertilizers, the quantity of fertilizers can be reduced and the physical and biological structure of the soil can be improved.

 Sweet potatoes Water Requirement:

  • Irrigation should be given immediately after planting.
  • In winter crops, give water at intervals of 12 to 15 days.
  • The monsoon crops receive rain and irrigate only if required.
  • It is very important to water the crop during the sixth week after planting. Thus, in the sweet potato crop, timely irrigation should be given taking into consideration the soil fertility, season, condition of the crop etc.

Sweet potatoes Inter cropping:

  • From the third week after planting, the vines grow rapidly, so weeding 2 to 3 times in the early stage of the crop and inter culturing at 30 to 60 days, keep the soil moist and by adding soil near the trunk, the tubers sit well.

Sweet potatoes Vine rotation:

  • This is a very important agronomic practice in sweet potato cultivation in which the yield is improved by transplanting the vines 30 days after planting in the early stages of sweet potato.
  • After 15 days, the vines should be rotated as per requirement.
  • When growth of the vine reaches 2.5 to 3 meters, it is not necessary to transplant the vine.

Agnihotra Farming

Sweet Potatoes Farming-Short term Winter Vine Crop

Sweet Potatoes Farming-Short term Winter Vine Crop

Sweet potatoes Crop protection

In sweet potato crops, leaf-eating caterpillars and sweet potato borer are the two most common pests.

  • Sweet potato leaf-eating caterpillar:
  • For control of leaf-eating caterpillars Chlorpyrifos 20 ml should be mixed with 10 liters of water and spray on crops.
  • Sweet potato borer :
  • It is the most damaging pest in sweet potato cultivation. This mite spends its entire instar in the vine/tubers in a latent manner.
  • This pest causes damage by making holes in sweet potato tubers in fields and in storage.
  • Before planting healthy vines it should dip in 10 ml of diazinon solutions to control this pest.
  • Mix the medicine in 10 liters of water and dip the pieces in this liquid mixture and then plant.
  • In addition, Fenthreon 10 ml should be mixed in 10 liters of water and this liquid mixture should be sprayed in standing crops at an interval of 15 to 20 days and the granular carbofuran 3g can also be used as needed.
  • Selecting tubers or vines from pest-free areas for planting sweet potatoes and crop rotation can also control pests.
  • 10 to 12 pheromone traps per hectare can be used to attract males and reduce its population.
  • Future population growth can be prevented by attracting both male and female weevils by self-inducing method using bio fungicide Beveria bassiana with improved pheromone trap.
  • Use resistant varieties like RS-5 and 47 with this pest.
  • Avoid surrounding host crops like morning glory and Amarvel.
  • Make embankment at 30 and 60 days after planting.
  • Disinfection of godowns with insecticides before storage of sweet potatoes in godowns.

Sweet Potatoes Farming-Short term Winter Vine Crop

Sweet Potatoes Farming-Short term Winter Vine Crop

Sweet potatoes Diseases

  • Sweet potato crops are damaged by dry rot or stem rot, black rot, leaf spot disease.
  • Sweet potato feathery mottle, a fungal disease, has also been reported in sweet potato.
  • But fortunately no such disease has been reported in our sweet potato crop.

Sweet Potatoes Farming-Short term Winter Vine Crop

Sweet Potatoes Farming-Short term Winter Vine Crop

Sweet potatoes Harvesting:

  • When the sweet potato tubers are ready for harvest, the vines and leaves turn yellowish and milk is produced when the tubers are dug up and cut from the standing crop.
  • If no black spots are seen on the cut surface of the tuber when it dries, it is a sign that the tuber is ready for digging.
  • Usually ready in four and a half to five months.
  • A light watering a week before harvesting makes it easier to dig the tubers out of the soil.
  • Before harvesting, the sweet potato vines are cut and then the tubers are dug with a spade.
  • It is very important not to injure the tubers while digging the tubers.
  • After digging the tubers, the soil above them is properly cleaned and the injured, diseased and small sized tubers are separated and sent to the market in baskets of equal size.

Sweet potatoes Yield:

  • In favorable conditions, the maximum production per hectare is 30 tons.

Sweet Potatoes Farming-Short term Winter Vine Crop

Sweet Potatoes Farming-Short term Winter Vine Crop

FAQs:

1. What is the scientific name of sweet potatoes?

Ans: The scientific name of sweet potatoes is Ipomoea batatas.

2. What family is sweet potato?

Ans: Convolvulaceae is the family of sweet potato.

3. What are the different uses of sweet potatoes?

• The sweet potato tuber is a collectable transformation of the root. • It is used mainly as food and to make starch and alcohol. • It is rich source of starch, sugars and vitamins A, B and C. • Yellow and orange colored tubers are high in carotene content. • Used as cattle fodder. • Its tubers are rich in carbohydrates and calories.

4. Which soil is best for sweet potato cultivation?

• Although sweet potatoes are best suited to light soils, they are also grown in well-drained medium black soils. • Tuber growth is stunted in heavy black soil. Besides, the labor cost is also high while digging sweet potatoes from the soil in such soil. • In sandy soil, sweet potato tubers are thin and long. • Whereas in over-fertilized soil, sweet potato plant growth increases and tuber growth decreases.

5. Name different varieties of Sweet potatoes?

• Gauri • CIP-440120 • ST-14 • CIP-440038 • Kamala Sundari • CIP SWA-2 and 362-7

6. What is the sowing time for Sweet potatoes?

• Winter sowing is done in October-November while monsoon sowing is done in June-July. Planting of sweet potato is done in flat fields in light and well-drained soil. When in heavy soil at a distance of 45 to 60 cm on the prepared embankment. Vine pieces are planted at a distance of 20 to 25 cm on both sides of the wide cushions.

7. What is the seed rate for Sweet potatoes per hectare?

One hectare of sweet potato requires 1.5 to 2 tons of vines or 83,333 vine pieces.

8. About Sweet potato borer

It is the most damaging pest in sweet potato cultivation.This mite spends its entire instar in the vine/tubers in a latent manner.This pest causes damage by making holes in sweet potato tubers in fields and in storage.Before planting healthy vines it should dip in 10 ml of diazinon solutions to control this pest. Mix the medicine in 10 liters of water and dip the pieces in this liquid mixture and then plant. In addition, Fenthreon 10 ml should be mixed in 10 liters of water and this liquid mixture should be sprayed in standing crops at an interval of 15 to 20 days and the granular carbofuran 3g can also be used as needed.Selecting tubers or vines from pest-free areas for planting sweet potatoes and crop rotation can also control pests.10 to 12 pheromone traps per hectare can be used to attract males and reduce its population. Future population growth can be prevented by attracting both male and female weevils by self-inducing method using bio fungicide Beveria bassiana with improved pheromone trap. Use resistant varieties like RS-5 and 47 with this pest. Avoid surrounding host crops like morning glory and Amarvel. Make embankment at 30 and 60 days after planting. Disinfection of godowns with insecticides before storage of sweet potatoes in godowns.

9. What is the yield of Sweet potatoes?

The maximum production per hectare is 30 tons.

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