Spine Gourd Farming (Kakrol/Kantola)

Spine Gourd Farming (Kakrol/Kantola)
Spine Gourd Farming (Kakrol/Kantola)
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Spine Gourd Farming (Kakrol/Kantola)

1.  Introduction of Spine Gourd/Spiny Gourd:

Name of VegetableSpine Gourd/Spiny Gourd
Botanical NameMomordica dioica
FamilyCucurbitacea
Indian NameKantola
NativeAsia Continent
Indian VarietiesIndira Kankoda-1, Indira Kankoda-2, Chhatisgarh Kankoda-2 etc

  • Cucumber crops are generally favored by hot and humid weather. Crop growth is adversely affected during periods of heavy rainfall and extreme cold.
  • Spine Gourd/Spiny Gourd is a vine vegetable having important medicinal and nutritional value.
  • After the first rains in the monsoon season, its plants usually emerge spontaneously from the DORMANT STATE in hedgerows or fences, but systematic scientific cultivation of this crop is practiced in a few areas of India and the World.
  • Farmer gets the high market price of Spine Gourd/Spiny Gourd fruit during monsoon season. However, there is a possibility of increasing the commercial cultivation of this vegetable.
  • The fruits of the Spine Gourd/Spiny Gourd are round and light green colored have thorns on it and that’s why in English it is known as ‘Spine Gourd’.
  • This crop is very important in Ayurveda as well as in nutritional terms. Spine Gourd/Spiny Gourd root is an excellent Ayurvedic medicine useful in hemorrhoids, honeydew, stomach ailments and urinary problems.
  • The fruit is rich in Vitamin C and Iodine
Spine Gourd Farming (Kakrol/Kantola)
Spine Gourd Fruit and Seeds/ Image Credit Google.com
Spine Gourd Farming (Kakrol/Kantola) 

  1. Spine Gourd/ Spiny Gourd Local Names in various states of India
EnglishSpine gourd or Teasel gourd or Spiny Gourd
HindiKantola
TamilMeluku-pakal or Palu-pakal
GujaratiKankoda
BengaliBhat korola or Kankrol
MarathiKartoli
AssameseAvandhya or Bhat-kerela
TeluguAdavikakara
RajasthaniBara -karela or kankera or Kankoda
MalayalamBen-pavel or Erimapasel
KannadaKarchi-balli
KonkaniPhagil
Spine Gourd Farming (Kakrol/Kantola)
Spine Gourd Seed/Image Credit Google.com

Jeevamrut,Panchgavya, Bijamrut,Amrutpani and Sanjivak Preparation

  1. Nutritional Value per 100 gm (Spine Guard/Spiny Guard)
Moisture83-84%
Protein3-3.2 g
Minerals1 g
Carbohydrates7-8 g
Fat3-3.2 g
Fibre3 g
Phosphorus4-4.5%
Magnesium4.5%
Calcium2%
Folate2%
Vitamin A14%
Vitamin B63%
Ascorbic acidTrace Amount
CaroteneTrace Amount
ThiaminTrace Amount
RiboflavinTrace Amount
NiacinTrace Amount

  1. Medicinal Value of the Spine Guard/Spiny Guard:

4.1  Spine Guard/Spiny Guard is

  • Anti-aging
  • Immunity Booster
  • Excellent for a person having an eye problems
  • Good for the Digestive system
  • Provide protection to the human liver
  • Useful in blood sugar maintenance
  • Provide protection against seasonal Flu, Cough, Cold, etc
  • Also useful in cancer disease

Spine Gourd Farming (Kakrol/Kantola) 


  1. Soil Selection:

  • Well-drained, fertile soil, sandy, loamy, or medium black soil rich in organic matter is suitable for Spine Gourd/Spiny Gourd cultivation.
  • Soil with  pH ranges between 06-07 is most suitable for the Spine Guard/Spiny Guard cultivation.
  • After deep ploughing two to three times with the plough (Wooden or Tractor) the soil should be allowed to heat up in the sun then the broken soil should be leveled for crop sowing.
  • If the water is not drained from the field in time, the Spine Gourd/Spiny Gourd knot/tuber in the soil may be damaged. So make proper arrangements for the drainage of excess water.

  1. Seed Rate/hectare: Seed: The seed rate required per hectare is 2.00-2.50 Kg. It is advisable to use seed rate as per the recommendation made by the Local Agriculture University in  that Climatic Zone. Tubers: 3000-5000 tubers/hectare


  1. Sowing Time/Planting tubers:

  • Planting through tuber is done in the month of June-July (One set of Monsoon)
  • Whereas seeds  can be done during March and April month
  • Cultivation of Spine Gourd/Spiny Gourd can be done from SEEDS, TUBERS & VINE CUTTINGS.
  • However, sowing through TUBERS can give good yield.

Spine Gourd Farming (Kakrol/Kantola) 
spine-gourd-farming-kakrol-kantola
Spine Gourd Green Fruit/Image Credit Google.com

  1. Various Methods of Propagation

8.1 Propagation from seeds:

  • If Spine Gourd/Spiny Gourd is planted from seed, male and female plants ratio of 40: 60 can be seen.
  • Male and Female plants can be distinguished only, when flowering stage is reached so that more and more seed are sown at each spot of the row.
  • One male plant per 10 female plants should be kept after flowering in the crop and the remaining male plants should be uprooted immediately.
  •  Vine growth is slow at first resulting in the late flowering in the crop, when propagated from seeds.
  • Generally 2 to 2.5 kg seed is required for one hectare sowing of  Spine Gourd/Spiny Gourd/Kantola.
Spine Gourd Farming (Kakrol/Kantola) 

8.2 Propagation from tubers:

  • A thorny vine that grows naturally in hedgerows or fences and develops wide canopy on the ground. After the end of the monsoon season, the life cycle of the crop is completed, so these tubers remain dormant in the soil and new vines sprout from these dormant tubers after the first rains in the following monsoon season.
  • If such plants are available in sufficient quantity, the nodes can be collected separately and stored and used at the time of sowing.
  • By planting from tubers the proportion of male and female plants can be precisely maintained. Also, the growth of vines is faster and better in tuber planting as compared to seeds, and also crops get ready at an early stage after 70-80 days.
Spine Gourd Farming (Kakrol/Kantola) 

8.3 Propagation by cuttings of vines:

  • First in the nursery, make a cushion bed after applying well-decomposed organic manure i.e 10-15 tonnes/ha.
  • Select a healthy plant for cutting of vines and cut into 30-40 cm long pieces and plant the pieces at a distance of 25 to 30 cm in the nursery.
  • Watering sown vines regularly in the nursery for proper growth and development of it.
  • New vines can be used for transplanting after new growth starts, it can be observed by  new root development of sown vines in the nursery.
  • Vine can also be planted in polythene bags for direct transplant to the field.

Spine Gourd Farming (Kakrol/Kantola) 
spine-gourd-farming-kakrol-kantola
Spine Gourd Green Fruit/Image Credit Google.com

Jeevamrut,Panchgavya, Bijamrut,Amrutpani and Sanjivak Preparation


  1. Spacing:

  • Spine Gourd/Spiny Gourd is planted at a distance of 120 to 150 cm between two rows and maintain 45 to 60 cm spacing between two plants.
  • Spine Gourd/Spiny Gourd can also be planted using the twin-row method. 45 to 60 cm between two rows and a distance of 120 to 150 cm is kept between the two twin furrows.

  1. Staking of Spine Gourd/Spiny Gourd vines (Manual Support)

  • If the Spine Gourd/Spiny Gourd vines are allowed to spread over the ground, the fruits are more wasted and their quality is not maintained properly.
  • Fix galvanized wire /wooden poles  at suitable height above the canopy to mount vines in an upward direction, away or in the opposite direction of the ground. In this telephone/mandap method vines are mounted on wire, wooden poles, and galvanized wire. This method cost more and bit expensive.
  • Bamboo can be used for vine mounting in an upward direction for further growth and development of the crop.
Spine Gourd Farming (Kakrol/Kantola) 

  1. Fertilizer Management (Organic & Inorganic):

  • (Organic Fertilizer)- While preparing land apply 15 tonnes/ha  well-decomposed Farm yard manure (FYM)  before sowing crop in the field.
N kg/haP kg/haK kg/ha
1006040
  • At the time of planting 5 kg of Diammonium phosphate (DAP) and 52 kg Murate of potash (MOP) can be given per hectare. Urea @ 30 kg per hectare should be given as supplemental fertilizer during 1-2 crop critical growth stages i.e. flowering, fruit development etc.

Spine Gourd Farming (Kakrol/Kantola) 
spine-gourd-farming-kakrol-kantola
Spine Gourd Yellow Male Flowers/Image Credit Google.com

  1. Irrigation:

  • Spine Gourd/Spiny Gourd is a monsoon crop that requires less water in monsoon season, however
  • First irrigation must be given just after sowing the seeds or tuber for smooth germination of the seed or tubers.
  • In monsoon, during dry spells of rain, irrigation can be given, if required from time to time.
  • In the Dry area to conserve moisture mulching can also be done for a higher yield at lower irrigation cost of the Spine Gourd/Spiny Gourd.
  • For smooth plucking of Spine Gourd/Spiny Gourd don’t irrigate the field 02-03 days before plucking, which facilitates fast and hassle-free plucking.
  • Some fertilizers and liquid insecticides-pesticides can also be given along with drip irrigation for control of soil-borne diseases, nematodes, and termites, if drip set is established in the field.

Spine Gourd Farming (Kakrol/Kantola) 
  1. Weed Management in Spine Gourd/Spiny Gourd

  • Irrigate the field before sowing the crop in the summer so as to all the unwanted plants to grow out from the soil.
  • At Vapsa condition, plough the land and buried all the unwanted plants in the soil.
  • Carry out hand weeding and plough the land between rows, using hand tools.
  • In case heavy infestation of weed is found  can be controlled by spraying chemical weedicides at various stages of crop growth.

  1. Insect-Pests and Diseases Infestation and Control

Spine Gourd/Spiny Gourd is generally grown in the monsoon season and is susceptible to various Bacterial, Fungal,  Nematode, and Viral diseases.

Apart from these, it is also susceptible to various insect –pests owing to favorable weather conditions prevailing during the monsoon season.

Spine Gourd Farming (Kakrol/Kantola) 

14.1  Major Insects-Pests of Spine gourd are

  1. Epilachna beetle
  2. Fruit fly
  3. Mildews and
  4. Nematodes

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14.2  Insect-Pests Control Measures:

  • Epilachna beetle can be controlled by spraying with Emamectin benzoate 5% SG @ 200 g/ha.
  • Fruit flies can be controlled by using any mechanical method of catching flies.Damaged fruits may be removed  from plant and buried in pits.
  • Spray of pesticide Quinalphos 25 E.C. @ 2 ml/litre is recommended to control fruit fly infestation
  • Nematode can be controlled by incorporating Neem cake in the soil at the time of land preparation as per recommendation by the Agriculture University for that area.
  • Intercropping with non-host crops like Marigold also help in controlling various insect-pest of crop.
Spine Gourd Farming (Kakrol/Kantola) 
spine-gourd-farming-kakrol-kantola
Spine Gourd Nursery Management/Image Credit Google.com

14.3  Major Diseases of the spine gourd are:

  1. Powdery mildew
  2. Anthracnose
  3. Downy mildew
  4. Leaf spots and
  5. Mosaic

14.4  Diseases Control Measures:

  • Fungicides like Hexagonal 5 EC @ 50-75 g/ha and Dithane-m-45 @ 1.5 g/litre can control major diseases in Spine Gourd/Spiny Gourd.
  • Viral diseases like MOSAIC can be controlled  by destroying infected plants and controlling vectors like aphids and white flies by spraying insecticides alternatively, i.e. Imidacloprid 17.8% S.L @ 4 ml/10 liter and Quinalphos 25EC @ 2 ml/liter.

Spine Gourd Farming (Kakrol/Kantola) 
  1.  Picking:

  • First picking is ready after 60-70 days of sowing the crop.
  • Harvest fully developed healthy green fruits.Delay in picking cause seeds in the fruit turn hard and the color of the embryo changes from white to red.
  • It is necessary to carry out picking on time, after picking the fruits, make a big pile and sprinkle water on the fruit, the pebbles on the fruit will start falling after some time. So keep the fruits widely scattered instead of piled up.

  1.  Crop Duration:

Generally, the duration of a Spine Gourd/Spiny Gourd crop is 115-125 Days

  1. Different Varieties of Spine Gourd/Spiny Gourd

Indira Kankoda-1
Indira Kankoda-2
Chhatisgarh Kankoda-2

Spine Gourd Farming (Kakrol/Kantola) 
spine-gourd-farming-kakrol-kantola
Spine Gourd Black Seeds/Image Credit Google.com

  1. Grading:

  • After plucking, if the fruits are graded according to size and sold in the market, higher prices can be obtained. In the market average price of Spine Gourd/Spiny Gourd is Rs.200 per kg or more based on demand and supply of it.

  1. Yield/hectare:

  • An average production of Spine Gourd/Spiny Gourd can be obtained from 75 to 100 quintals/hectare, if all the Agronomical package of practices are meticulously followed.

Spine Gourd Farming (Kakrol/Kantola) 

Why Camel Milk is good for Human Health


  1. Summary

Botanical Name of Spine Gourd/Spiny Gourd is Momordica dioica, family Cucurbitacea, Indian Name Kantola, Native Asia Continent, Indian Varieties Indira Kankoda-1, Indira Kankoda-2, Chhatisgarh Kankoda-2 etc. Farmer gets the high market price of Spine Gourd/Spiny Gourd fruit during monsoon season. Spine Gourd/Spiny Gourd is a vine vegetable having important medicinal and nutritional values.

The fruits of the Spine Gourd/Spiny Gourd are round and light green colored have thorns on it and that’s why in English it is known as ‘Spine Gourd’. Crop growth is adversely affected during periods of heavy rainfall and extreme cold. Spine Gourd/ Spiny Gourd Local Names in various states of India.

Generally, the duration of a Spine Gourd/Spiny Gourd crop is 115-125 Days. The seed rate required per hectare is 2.00-2.50 Kg. Cultivation of Spine Gourd/Spiny Gourd can be done from SEEDS, TUBERS & VINE CUTTINGS.

Different Varieties of Spine Gourd/Spiny Gourd are Indira Kankoda-1 Indira Kankoda-2 Chhatisgarh Kankoda-2. Nutritional Value per 100 gm Spine Guard/Spiny Guard is, Moisture 83-84%, Protein 3-3.2 g, Minerals 1 g, Carbohydrates 7-8 g, Fat 3-3.2 g, Fibre 3 g, Phosphorus 4-4.5%, Magnesium 4.5%, Calcium 2%, Folate 2%, Vitamin A 14%, Vitamin B6 3%, Ascorbic acid, Carotene, Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin present in trace amount, Well-drained, fertile soil, sandy, loamy, or medium black soil rich in organic matter is suitable for Spine Gourd/Spiny Gourd crops.

After the first rains in the monsoon season, its plants usually emerge spontaneously from the DORMANT STATE in hedgerows or fences, but systematic scientific cultivation of this crop is practiced in a few areas of India and the World. In the Mandap method vines are mounted on wire, wooden poles, and galvanized wire. Spine Gourd/Spiny Gourd root is an excellent Ayurvedic medicine useful in hemorrhoids, honeydew, stomach ailments, and urinary problems.


Spine Gourd Farming (Kakrol/Kantola) 
spine-gourd-farming-kakrol-kantola
Spine Gourd Vines Mounted on Galvanized Support/Image Credit Google.com

FAQs

  1. How long does it take to grow spine gourd?

Answer: Generally, the duration of a Spine Gourd/Spiny Gourd crop is 115-125 Days, however crop is ready for first picking after 60-70 days from sowing date.

  1. What are the nutritional value of Kantola/Spine gourd?

Answer:

Moisture83-84%
Protein3-3.2 g
Minerals1 g
Carbohydrates7-8 g
Fat3-3.2 g
Fibre3 g
Phosphorus4-4.5%
Magnesium4.5%
Calcium2%
Folate2%
Vitamin A14%
Vitamin B63%
Ascorbic acidTrace Amount
CaroteneTrace Amount
ThiaminTrace Amount
RiboflavinTrace Amount
NiacinTrace Amount
  1. What are the Medicanal value of Kantola/Spine gourd?

Answer: Spine Guard/Spiny Guard is Anti-aging,Immunity Booster, Excellent for a person having an eye problems, Good for the Digestive system,Provide protection to the human liver,Useful in blood sugar maintenance,Provide protection against seasonal Flu, Cough, Cold and Also useful in cancer disease.

  1. How many Spine gourds tubers can be grown per hectare?

Answer: Tubers: 3000-5000 tubers is enough for one hectare land/soil.

  1. How much spine gourd yield per hectare?

Answer: An average production of Spine Gourd/Spiny Gourd can be obtained from 75 to 100 quintals/hectare, if all the Agronomical package of practices are meticulously followed.

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