SILAGE-GREEN FODDER PICKLE FOR CATTLE

SILAGE-GREEN FODDER PICKLE FOR CATTLE

SILAGE-GREEN FODDER PICKLE FOR CATTLE

What is Silage?

Silage Meaning

  • Green cereal fodder stored in an airtight environment is called silage
  • Silage is nothing but one of the feeds used by farmers for their livestock like cattle, sheep, goats, etc. Silage is prepared by fermenting and preserving high-moisture forage crops such as grass, maize Bajra, Sorghum, or other cereal crops.
  • Silage is useful to the farmers during lean periods of fodder crops and also saves the farmers from paying the high cost of the fodder crops.
  • Silage preserves all the nutrients present in the fodder crops and make it delicious in taste

Advantages of making silage:

  • Silo can be built in any season.
  • Green fodder can be preserved in the same condition for a long time.
  • Maximum nutrients of the green fodder can be preserved in silos.
  • After the monsoon, a lot of green fodder grows, which cannot be stored, if silos are made for this green fodder, additional green fodder can be stored by making silos.
  • Silage is preferred by animals and also has laxative properties.
  • Silage is relatively high in protein and carotene (vitamin-A).
  • More space is reserved for hay storage, whereas silage occupies relatively less space.
  • There will be no question of fire which is seen in storing dry hay.

SILAGE-GREEN FODDER PICKLE FOR CATTLE

Disadvantages of making silage:

  • The labor cost for filling silos is relatively high. Small farmers cannot afford it.
  • Vitamin D content is very low.
  • Silage once opened cannot be closed again.
  • At least 10 cm silo should be extracted from the silo pit per day.
  • If the moisture content in the silo pit increases, the entire silage will deteriorate, which is not observed in the dry hay.
  • If the silo is not filled properly, the entire silage may also spoil.
  • During the rainy season the cost of transporting the crop from the field to the silo pit is very high.

Also Read…Custard Apple-Sitaphal Farming


SILAGE-GREEN FODDER PICKLE FOR CATTLE

Silage Introduction:

  • If we talk about the green fodder produced in our country, the amount of green fodder produced is less than 61.1% of the requirement.
  • Similarly dry fodder is produced as low as 21.9% and grains as low as 64%. So today we will get information about silage as an alternative to meet the deficiency of green fodder.
  • Considering the geographical situation of our country, green fodder is more than required in certain seasons. While in the second season, it is deficient. So when this green fodder is produced in excess, if it is stored and made into silage and used during other times or seasons, it will definitely prove to be a blessing for animal husbandry.

Now, we will discuss in detail about

  • The selection of crops for making silage,
  • Harvesting time,
  • Method of making and
  • Its pros and cons

SILAGE-GREEN FODDER PICKLE FOR CATTLE

1. Crop selection for silage making

  • Many crops can be selected for making silage. But to make good quality silage it is good to choose mainly crops like sorghum, maize, millet, oat, and barley.
  • In addition, we can also use hybrid Napier, guinea grass, Sudan grass and para grass to make silage.
  • Chickpeas, alfalfa, and berseem are not suitable crops for making silage, but if these crops are intermixed with cereal crops in the right proportion, they can also be made into silage.

2. Harvesting of crops:

  • After selecting the crop for making silage, the stage at which the crop is cut, is a very important factor, so that we get maximum nutrients from the crop.
  • At the time of harvest, the sugar (carbohydrate) content of the crop must also be maximized, as these sugars are responsible for the lactic acid produced by the chemical change in the crop caused by the absence of oxygen.
  • This lactic acid helps preserve the silage for longer.
  • If silage is made from maize, sorghum and oats, it is best to cut the crop when 50% of the crop is in flower.
  • For hybrid Napier and guinea grass, the crop should be cut at a height of 1.25 m (first cut 50-55 days after planting, thereafter 30-35 days or for multi-cut as mentioned above).
  • 70-75 percent moisture (water) must be present in the crop at the time of harvesting.

Also Read…Pomegranate Farming


SILAGE-GREEN FODDER PICKLE FOR CATTLE

SILAGE-GREEN FODDER PICKLE FOR CATTLE

3. Types of silos

  • To make silage, small pieces of green forage are filled in an airtight atmosphere called a silo. The THREE main types are as follows.
  1. Bunker Silo
  2. Tower silos
  3. Pit silos

1. Bunker Silo:

  • A Bunker silo is a type of storage structure used for green fodder storage and preservation relatively in huge quantities. Another name of bunker silo is a drive-over pile and is generally used to prepare and preserve large quantities of feed for the livestock, especially for dairy farms where delicious and nutritious feed is required to feed the cattle throughout the year.

Structure and Construction of Bunker Silo:

  • Bunker silo is relatively long, rectangular in shape, generally dug into the ground or fix on an elevated platform
  • Having a concrete wall on 3 sides and a fourth side open for loading and unloading of green fodder
  • Wall height-8 to 16 feet or 2.4 to 4.9 m and length is not fixed, it may be according to the choice of the owner
  • Bunker silo base is covered with plastic to provide protection from seepage and spoilage of liquid materials.

Loading and Packing:

  • Suitable forage crops are harvested at the right time and transported to the silo site using a well-steriled transport vehicle.
  • Clean or sterilize transport vehicles before loading forage crops in it. Cover entire forage crops with a thick plastic cover to stop the evaporation of moisture from it. If, possible transportation can be done during the evening time.
  • Works man must wear specific clothes while handling the forage crops.
  • Thereafter forage crops should be chopped into small pieces suitable for the silage

SILAGE-GREEN FODDER PICKLE FOR CATTLE

Fermentation and Preservation:

  • Seal the silo with a plastic sheet to create an airtight situation, resulting in atmospheric oxygen being unable to enter which facilitate anaerobic fermentation inside the silo.
  • Fermentation process led by lactic acid bacteria which lowers pH of the silage
  • Proper fermentation is necessary for preparation of the higher quality and nutritious silage for livestock throughout year.

Advantages of Bunker Silo:

  • Large storage capacity
  • Low-cost storage compare to tower silo.
  • Maintain quality of silage and preserve for a long time

Also Read…Agnihotra Farming


SILAGE-GREEN FODDER PICKLE FOR CATTLE

2. Tower silo:

  • Cylindrical shape SILO used to store and preserve forage crops for cattle feed
  • In the modern era it is used to prepare silage for cattle and
  • Tower silo provides high-quality, delicious and nutritious feed to the cattle throughout the year

Structure & Construction:

  • Structure-Cylindrical vertical with cone or dome-shaped
  • Usually prepared using concrete materials like cement, iron, steel, wood etc
  • Height-30-100 feet
  • Diameter-10 to 20 feet
  • Lower surface cover with a plastic sheet to avoid seepage of the liquid materials.

Loading and Packing:

  • In loading process chopped fodder crops like cereals and forage is filled in the silo for further fermentation process inside.
  • Chopped forge crops is entered in to silo through top opening
  • Proper loading is important for efficient use of the silo.
  • Ensure even distribution of chopped fodder crops, which avoids formation of air pockets in the silo.
  • Compacting loaded materials inside silo is called packing, which removes extra air and create favorable environment in the silo
  • Packaging must be carried out using suitable packaging equipment.
  • Packaging maintain quality of the silage.

SILAGE-GREEN FODDER PICKLE FOR CATTLE

Advantages of Tower Silo:

  • Spacious
  • Huge Storage Capacity
  • Effective Preservation of fodder
  • Increase Nutrient Retention
  • Minimum Wastage of fodder
  • Feed Availability thought the year
  • High Labor Efficiency
  • High Flexibility
  • Longevity

SILAGE-GREEN FODDER PICKLE FOR CATTLE

SILAGE-GREEN FODDER PICKLE FOR CATTLE

3. Pit silo-making process:

  • A place should be chosen for constructing a peat silo that is close to the animal shelter and at a height where waterlogging is reduced.
  • If a site is selected where waterlogging occurs, silage may deteriorate due to increased moisture content in the silage due to waterlogging.
  • After selecting a suitable site, excavation should be done circularly or elliptically for making peat silos.
  • While doing this excavation, pay special attention to how many animals these silos are for and what crop silos are to be made.
  • It is roughly calculated that about 650-700 kg of green fodder can be filled in 1 cubic meter. If five animals are to be given silage at the rate of 20 kg per day for 3 months, the dimensions of the pit silage should be 3.0 meters in length, 2.5 meters in width, and 2.0 meters in height.
  • Now the cattle breeders will also have a question about whether to make a circular peat silo or an elliptical one which has any advantages? So yes, making round peat silos can keep the green fodder more compact in an airtight condition.
  • Now after digging, before filling the green fodder, the wall and floor of the silo should be coated with a mixture of dung and soil, then dry grass or pool should be placed on the wall and floor so that the green fodder does not come in direct contact with the soil.
  • Also, you can use a plastic bag instead of dry grass or straw.

Silage Filling Process:

  • First of all cut all green fodder into small pieces of 2.5-4.0 cm.
  • If the moisture content in the green fodder is found less than 70-75%, water can be sprinkled in the silo pit as required.
  • Complete the silo-filling process in 3-4 days.
  • Add liquid jaggery 40-50 kg/tones of green fodder to make Silo palatable.
  • If silage is made from maize or sorghum, add 80-100 kg jaggery per tone of green fodder. This jaggery is essential for bacteria to produce lactic acid, a chemical reaction that occurs in the absence of oxygen.
  • Apart from this salt @18-20 kg/tons, sodium bisulphide @ 5 kg/ton, dilute acetic acid @10 kg/ton, or phosphoric acid at @ 6 kg/ton can be applied along with green fodder.
  • Make a green fodder layer of 3-4 feet and apply pressure on it, so that the oxygen inside will escape.
  • When the green fodder is full, press it with an ox or tractor.

SILAGE-GREEN FODDER PICKLE FOR CATTLE

Method of closing a silo pit:

  • First of all, after the silo is filled, put 1-2 feet of mulch over it and then cover it with a plastic bag.
  • On plastic bag spread soil cover about 10 cm, above it spread mixture of dung and soil as much as possible.
  • After 3-4 days of grouting, if cracks found on grouting should be filled again with grouting so that air-tight condition is created as much as possible.
  • You can use these silos for feeding after 21 days.

Characteristics of excellent silage:

  • If the pH score is measured between 3.8-4.2, then its quality can be considered very high.
  • If the silo smells good then its quality can be said to be good.
  • High quality silage is yellowish green (brown) in color.

Also Read…DRONE USE IN AGRICULTURE


SILAGE-GREEN FODDER PICKLE FOR CATTLE

SILAGE-GREEN FODDER PICKLE FOR CATTLE

Silage Bag:

  • Silage bags are those which is used to store and preserve ready silage prepared from the green fodder. It facilitates easy transportation of the silage from one place to other place as per requirement in the market. There are so many manufacturer in the market sell silage bag for the consumers. Price of the silage bags as per its weight capacity ranges from INR 200-600.

Readymade Silage price:

  • Silage price depends on from which crop it is made, however silage price ranges from INR 5-10 in the open market.

Conclusion:

Green cereal fodder stored in an airtight environment is called silage. Major advantages of making silage are it can be built in any season, green fodder can be preserved in the same condition for a long time, maximum nutrients of the green fodder can be preserved in silos, relatively high in protein and carotene (vitamin-A) and there will be no question of fire which is seen in storing dry hay.

Major factors affection silage making are harvesting time and method of making silo. Different types of silos are Bunker Silo, Tower silos and Pit silos .Characteristics of excellent silage are when pH score is measured between 3.8-4.2, then its quality can be considered very high, If the silo smells good then its quality can be said to be good and high quality silage is yellowish green (brown) in color.

SILAGE-GREEN FODDER PICKLE FOR CATTLE

SILAGE-GREEN FODDER PICKLE FOR CATTLE

SILAGE-GREEN FODDER PICKLE FOR CATTLE

 FAQs:

1. What is silage?

• Green cereal fodder stored in an airtight environment is called silage • Silage is nothing but one of the feeds used by farmers for their livestock like cattle, sheep, goats, etc. Silage is prepared by fermenting and preserving high-moisture forage crops such as grass, maize Bajra, Sorghum, or other cereal crops. • Silage is useful to the farmers during lean periods of fodder crops and also saves the farmers from paying the high cost of the fodder crops. • Silage preserves all the nutrients present in the fodder crops used to make it and also delicious in taste.

2. What are the advantages of Silages making?

• Silo can be built in any season. • Green fodder can be preserved in the same condition for a long time. • Maximum nutrients of the green fodder can be preserved in silos. • After the monsoon, a lot of green fodder grows, which cannot be stored, if silos are made for this green fodder, additional green fodder can be stored by making silos. • Silage is preferred by animals and also has laxative properties. • Silage is relatively high in protein and carotene (vitamin-A). • More space is reserved for hay storage, whereas silage occupies relatively less space. • There will be no question of fire which is seen in storing dry hay.

3. What are the different types of Silo?

• Bunker Silo • Tower silos • Pit silos

4. What is silage bag and its price in India?

Silage bags are those which is used to store and preserve ready silage prepared from the green fodder. It facilitates easy transportation of the silage from one place to other place as per requirement in the market. There are so many manufacturer in the market sell silage bag for the consumers. Price of the silage bags as per its weight capacity ranges from INR 200-600.

5. What is the characteristics of good silage?

• If the pH score is measured between 3.8-4.2, then its quality can be considered very high. • If the silo smells good then its quality can be said to be good. • High quality silage is yellowish green (brown) in color.

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