Pulse Crops and Soil Fertility

Pulse Crops and Soil Fertility
Green Beans – Vigna radiat L Image Credit: Google.com
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Why Pulse Crops are important for Soil Fertility?

Importance of Pulse crops in Increasing soil fertility

Pulse Crops and Soil Fertility has direct relation in production of various crops. Pulses having higher protein content that of cereals crops. Soil Fertility define as a soil which contains all the essential major and micro nutrients as per standard, which may be differ from soil to soil and able grow healthy plants during various growth and development stages, which leads to higher crop yield at all. Fertile soil contains all the major nutrients like nitrogen, phosphorus, potash and also micro nutrients, it can be detected by the soil testing from time to time.

Our farmers use chemical fertilizers indiscriminately to supply the required nitrogen element to the crops and due to this, they are facing problems like land and water pollution, rising prices of chemical fertilizers, scarcity of raw materials, poor storage capacity and increasing demand for energy.

Important Words of the Article:

Important Pulse grown thought the world are

  • Chick Pea – Cicer Arietinum L
  • Pigeon Peas- Cajanus Rajan L
  • Green Beans – Vigna Radiat L
  • Black Gram- Vigna Mungo L
  • Red Kidney Beans- Phaseolus vulgaris L
  • Lentils – Lens Culinaris L

Pulse Crops and Soil Fertility

Pulse Crops and Soil Fertility
Pulse Crop Seeds Image Credit: Google.com

Jeevamrut,Panchgavya, Bijamrut,Amrutpani and Sanjivak Preparation

Pulse Crops and Soil Fertility

What do you understand by Pulse Crop?

  • Pulses are widely used in daily food throught the world. It is rich source of protein at all.
  • If we break pulse crop, it divides in to two halves so pulse crop is dicotyledon crop.
  • Owing to protein rich content it is also used after converting into  flour to make various recipes of food.
  • Pulses having higher protein content that of cereals crops.

Pulse Crops and Soil Fertility

What do you understand by Soil Fertility?

Soil Fertility define as a soil which contains all the essential major and micro nutrients as per standard, which may be differ from soil to soil and able grow healthy plants during various growth and development stages, which leads to higher crop yield at all. Fertile soil contains all the major nutrients like nitrogen, phosphorus, potash and also micro nutrients, it can be detected by the soil testing from time to time.

Why Soil Fertility?

  • Our farmers use chemical fertilizers indiscriminately to supply the required nitrogen element to the crops and due to this, they are facing problems like land and water pollution, rising prices of chemical fertilizers, scarcity of raw materials, poor storage capacity and increasing demand for energy.
  • Furthermore, the question of soil health due to deteriorating physical, chemical and biological properties of soil and poor response of crop production to chemical fertilizers added to the soil to supply nutrients is challenging.
  • In such a situation, there is an urgent need to convert modern agriculture based on chemical fertilizers into an environmentally friendly, robust and sustainable system such as integrated nutrition systems, use of crop residues, crop rotation and use of pulses in intercropping systems.

Pulse Crops and Soil Fertility

Pulse Crops and Soil Fertility
Pulse Crop Seeds Image Credit: Google.com

Pulse Crops and Soil Fertility

Why Nitrogen is Important for Soil Fertility and Plant Growth and Development?

  • Nitrogen is an essential nutrient for every plant. Nitrogen is essential for the structure of nucleotides, RNA, DNA, amino acids and proteins. Our atmosphere contains 78% nitrogen, but it is not directly useful to plants.
  • This nitrogen has to be converted into a form that can be taken up by plants. Low availability of nitrogen in most soils has raised the question of crop production.
  • Soil productivity has to be maintained at an adequate level to produce enough food grains for the growing population
  • Effective management of nitrogen in the atmosphere is therefore key. For this, biological nitrogen fixation is a cost-effective and environmentally friendly effective remedy. Legumes are capable of biological nitrogen fixation.
  • Botanically, legumes belong to the family Fabaceae or Leguminosae. The fruits of leguminous crops are commonly known as pods. Among the pulse crops grown in our country and state, gram, mung bean, urad, math, tuwer, chola, val, pea, kalthi, rajma, lentil, guar etc. are popular. Peanuts and soybeans also belong to the Leguminosae family.
Pulse Crops and Soil Fertility
Soil Fertility Increase by Pulse Crops Image Credit: Google.com

India’s – Pulse Crops  Statistic

  • India is the leading country in imports. India’s global contribution to pulses cultivation, production, consumption and growth is 33 per cent of the total cultivated area and 27 to 28 per cent of the total production (Source: Google.com).
  • During the year 2021-22, the cultivated area of pulses in India was 31.50 million hectares and the production was 27 Million Metric tonnes.
  • Major pulse growing state are Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh etc (Source: Google.com).

Pulse Crops and Soil Fertility

Jeevamrut,Panchgavya, Bijamrut,Amrutpani and Sanjivak Preparation

Pulse Crops and Soil Fertility

Importance of Pulse crops in Increasing soil fertility

The ability of legumes to fix atmospheric nitrogen is perhaps the most important characteristic distinguishing them from other plants. In addition, leguminous crops can provide enormous benefits in terms of soil quality.

(1) Nitrogen fixation:

  • The process of converting atmospheric nitrogen into ammonia by microorganisms in the presence of nitrogenase enzyme is called biological nitrogen fixation. Globally, its contribution is 18 million metric tons per year, while industrial nitrogen production is 9 million tons per year.
  • The plant and seed tissues of legumes contain good amounts of protein. This is due to the ability of leguminous crops to supply most of their nitrogen needs with the help of the symbiotic Rhizobium bacteria present in the roots.
  • Legumes can meet up to 90 percent of their nitrogen requirements if the right type of Rhizobium bacterium is introduced.
  • Shortly after the seed germination of the leguminous crop, the Rhizobium bacterium in the soil penetrates through the root hairs of the plant and moves into the roots.
  • As the bacterium increases in number, the roots swell and light pink colored root nodules are formed. Dependent on carbohydrates produced by plants during photosynthesis, these bacteria produce ammonia from hydrogen from plant carbohydrates in the soil and nitrogen from the air. Ammonia then provides a source of nitrogen for plant growth.
  • Growth is nutritious for both the bacteria and the crop, and this symbiotic relationship between high-protein seed crops produces plants as well as seeds or fodder.
  • Beans contain 25% protein. Generally, the higher the protein content in the plant, the more nitrogen is added to the soil. Nitrogen is an important component for building organic matter in the soil. Nitrogen is released from the decomposition of legume plant residues, roots and tubers.
  • Microorganisms in the soil decompose the nitrogenous organic matter and after its death, the nitrogen is released into the soil.
  • Normally about two-thirds of the nitrogen fixed by a legume crop is available in the following season after the legume crop.
  • In a mixed cropping system of perennial grass and leguminous crops, the leguminous crop not only meets its own nitrogen requirement but also supplies about 36 percent of the nitrogen requirement of the adjacent grass. If harvested as a fodder crop, each tonne of forage harvested adds 5 to 15 tonnes of nitrogen per hectare to the soil.

Pulse Crops and Soil Fertility

Nitrogen Fixation by Leguminous Crop/Image Credit Google.com

(2)  07 Benefits of Legume Crops in Soil Quality

  1.  Adding organic matter to the soil,
  2.  Improving soil porosity,
  3.  Returning nutrients,
  4.  To improve the structure of the land,
  5.  Reduce soil acidity,
  6. Diversity of soil microorganisms, and
  7.  Proportionate inhibition of disease, pest and weed growth, etc.

Pulse Crops and Soil Fertility

(3) Soil organic matter:

  • As mentioned earlier, legumes are rich in nitrogen due to their high protein content in crops. Since most other crop residues contain more carbon than nitrogen, they do not decompose quickly. As soil microbes require both nitrogen and carbon, nitrogen from leguminous crops increases the decomposition of crop residues and converts them into organic matter in the soil.

Pulse Crops and Soil Fertility

Pulse Crops and Soil Fertility
Soil Fertility Increase by Pulse Crops Image Credit: Google.com

Pulse Crops and Soil Fertility

(4) Soil Porosity :

  • Many leguminous crops are tap rooted, so their roots penetrate  6 to 8 feet deep into the soil and are half an inch thick, opening pathways deep into the soil. Legumes rich in nitrogen and encourage earthworms in compost  making,to build up soil fertility.
  • Thus, root pathways and earthworm rates increase soil porosity and increase air and water transport to depth.

(5) Returning Nutrients to the Soil :

  • Leguminous crops are capable of exchanging nutrients deep in the soil, as the roots of most rainfed and perennial legumes penetrate deep into the soil. This increases the efficiency of applied chemical fertilizers and also prevents the loss of nutrient especially nitrate nitrogen as it sinks below the root zone in shallow rooted crops.

(6) Improve the Soil Structure:

  • Research done in the country and abroad shows that the physical properties of the soil improve after harvesting pulses. This improvement is due to soil stabilization. Proteins, glomalin and other substances found in the roots of beans and other crops bind soil particles together to form stable particles.
  • These settled particles increase soil porosity, make the soil loose and compact, and reduce the soil’s ability to erode and crack.

Pulse Crops and Soil Fertility

(7) Reduce the Soil acidity 

  • Native legume crops obtain their nitrogen requirements from the soil, the residual effect of which is to lower the soil’s pH. Crop growth and development in soils with higher than optimal pH has been shown to reduce pH and increase the activity of soil microorganisms due to leguminous crops.

(8) Biological Diversity :

  • Legumes contribute to increasing the diversity of soil organisms and micro-organisms resulting in greater stability of total life in the soil.
  • Additional nitrogen supply helps leguminous crops to produce more total organic matter in the soil. Soil microbes use this increased nitrogen to produce carbon-rich corn and wheat like in decomposing crop residues.

Pulse Crops and Soil Fertility

(9) To break the cycle of diseases, Pests and Weed:

  • Legumes provide excellent cover in crop rotations, reducing disease, pest and weed growth rates. So less chemicals have to be used.
  • Grass categories, broadleaf, cool season and warm season alike, to reduce disease, pest and weed pressure.
  • A gap of three years between crops of the type is usually sufficient.

Pulse Crops and Soil Fertility

Pulse Crops and Soil Fertility
Red Kidney Beans- Phaseolus vulgaris L Image Credit: Google.com

(10) Other benefits:

Leguminous crops prevent soil erosion as they spread quickly over the land. Covering the soil prevents loss of water through evaporation and controls weeds by preventing the uptake of nutrients from the soil by weeds.

Jeevamrut,Panchgavya, Bijamrut,Amrutpani and Sanjivak Preparation

Pulse Crops and Soil Fertility

Summary:

Important Pulse grown thought the world are Chick Pea – Cicer arietinum Pigeon Peas- Cajanus cajan Green Beans – Vigna radiat Black Gram- Vigna mungo Red Kidney Beans- Phaseolus vulgaris Lentils – Lens culinaris. Pulse Crop Pulses are widely used in daily food throught the world. It is rich source of protein at all. If we break pulse crop it divides in to two halves so pulse crop is dicotyledon crop. Owing to protein rich content it is also used after converting it in to flour and make various recipes of food.

Pulses having higher protein content that of cereals crops. Soil Fertility Soil Fertility define as a soil which contains all the essential major and micro nutrients as per standard, which may be differ from soil to soil and able grow the plants during various growth and development stages, which leads to higher crop yield at all.

Fertile soil contains all the major nutrients like nitrogen, phosphorus, potash and also micro nutrients, it can be detected by the soil testing from time to time.Our farmers use chemical fertilizers indiscriminately to supply the required nitrogen element to the crops and due to this, they are facing problems like land and water pollution, rising prices of chemical fertilizers, scarcity of raw materials, poor storage capacity and increasing demand for energy.

Furthermore, the question of soil health due to deteriorating physical, chemical and biological properties of soil and poor response of crop production to chemical fertilizers added to the soil to supply nutrients is challenging. In such a situation, there is an urgent need to convert modern agriculture based on chemical fertilizers into an environmentally friendly, robust and sustainable system such as integrated nutrition systems, use of crop residues, crop rotation and use of pulses in intercropping systems.

Nitrogen is an essential nutrient for every plant. Nitrogen is essential for the structure of nucleotides, RNA, DNA, amino acids and proteins. Our atmosphere contains 78 nitrogen, but it is not directly useful to plants. This nitrogen has to be converted into a form that can be taken up by plants. Low availability of nitrogen in most soils has raised the question of crop production.

Pulse Crop and Soil Fertility

Pulse Crops and Soil Fertility
Pea Pulse Crop Image Credit: Google.com

Pulse Crops and Soil Fertility

FAQs

How Pulse Crop fix atmospheric nitrogen from the atmosphere?

List name of Major Pulse Crops with its botanical name.

• Chick Pea - Cicer Arietinum L • Pigeon Peas- Cajanus Rajan L • Green Beans - Vigna Radiat L• Black Gram- Vigna Mungo L • Red Kidney Beans- Phaseolus vulgaris L• Lentils - Lens Culinaris L

How is the soil fertility increased by pulse crop in the soil?

• Just after the seed germination of the leguminous crop, the Rhizobium bacterium in the soil penetrates through the root hairs of the plant and moves into the roots. • As the bacterium increases in number, the roots swell and light pink colored root nodules are formed. Dependent on carbohydrates produced by plants during photosynthesis, these bacteria produce ammonia from hydrogen from plant carbohydrates in the soil and nitrogen from the air. Ammonia then provides a source of nitrogen for plant growth.

Pulse Crops and Soil Fertility

Pulse Crops and Soil Fertility
Pulse Crops Image Credit: Google.com
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