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Proper Handling of Livestock Vaccines

Proper Handling of Livestock Vaccines

ANIMALS VACCINATION PRECAUTION AND IMPORTANCE

Proper Handling of Livestock Vaccines is very important now a days. Many diseases in animals are caused by pathogenic microbes. Such diseases are contagious and spread from one animal to another. There is no direct treatment for these viral diseases. Animals can be protected from such diseases only by vaccination.

Vaccination is a very important aspect of the cattle herd. The protection of animals against diseases by vaccination depends on the animal’s fitness. For maximum benefits of vaccination, we need to know the type of vaccine, biological response to vaccination, duration of protection from vaccination, maintenance, and its possible dangers.

Foot and Mouth Diseases of Animals

PRECAUTIONARY MEASURES REQUIRED IN THE VACCINATION PROCESS

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General precautions for the purchase and storage of vaccines:
  1. Consult your local veterinary officer before purchasing the vaccine.
  2. The guidance of a veterinary officer is essential in determining which vaccine is required for your area.
  3. Read and follow the instructions on the medicine labels.
  4. In the refrigerator where you store the vaccine use a thermometer to check the temperature.
  5. Only buy vaccines that you can use on time.
  6. Check the temperature at least once a week.
  7. Check the expiry dates of vaccines while purchasing or receiving them and do not purchase expired vaccines. If you order the vaccine by mail, order. If placing, orders should always be placed on Monday so as to avoid weekly holidays as weekends are not available anywhere.
  8. The possibility of temperature changes around the time of vaccination and greatly reduced effectiveness of the vaccine.
  9. Refrigerate vaccines that are close to expiry first and use them first.
  10. Check the temperature of the shipping cooler, when receiving the vaccine and refrigerate the vaccine immediately.
  11. Provide technical training to employees, family members, and others on vaccine administration
  12. Contact your distributor immediately if you have any concerns about vaccine administration.
  13. Leave the cooler to cool for at least 1 hour before injecting the vaccine.
  14. If you are purchasing the vaccine locally, use an extra cool pack or ice pack to keep the vaccine cold.
  15. Remove air from syringes and/or guns before injecting the vaccine.
  16. Use a needle of the correct gauge and length.
  17. Maintain proper cleanliness of equipment.
  18. Change the needle before filling a syringe each time.
  19. If the same needle is to be used, use it only after cleaning it with warm water.
  20. Do not use broken or bent needles.
  21. Never use soap or disinfecting chemicals to clean the syringe as they can affect the effectiveness of the vaccine. If more than one injection is to be used in an animal, give the second injection at least 4 inches apart.
  22. Maintain record of vaccine and date of vaccination in animal health record. Most vaccines remain active in the animal’s body for 21 days, but oil-based vaccines remain active for 60 days.
  23. Maintain immunization records for at least 3 years.
  24. Use enough ice or cold packs to maintain a constant temperature of 35-45° F. Always buy small dose vials to minimize vaccine wastage.
  25. Carry enough vaccine for morning or afternoon use rather than the whole day’s need.
  26. Keep the cooler away from sunlight.
  27. Next time use the remaining vaccine in the vials first

Proper Handling of Livestock Vaccines

PRECAUTIONS DURING VACCINE ADMINISTRATION:

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PRECAUTIONS FOR INJECTABLE VACCINES:

THE POSSIBILITY OF DISEASE IN CATTLE IN GENERAL IS VERY IMPORTANT.

Proper Handling of Livestock Vaccines

VACCINES ARE MAINLY OF TWO TYPES

Live and Dead vaccines

In a live vaccine, the disease-causing organisms are alive but their ability to cause disease has been destroyed so that they grow in the vaccinated animals but do not cause disease and produce immunity in our body. Examples of such vaccines are the Infectious Abortion Vaccine, Brucellosis Vaccine, and Theilaria Vaccine. Such vaccines often provide long-term protection.

Inactivated vaccines contain disease-causing organisms that have been chemically killed. A dead vaccine is less stimulating to the immune system because it is dead, so it provides immunity for a short period of time. Such vaccines have to be administered in large doses and frequently

It is very important to tell the animal husbandry friends that since it is an organic product it is very important to maintain it at the right temperature. Vaccines are stored in refrigerators, deep fridges or liquid nitrogen depending on the type and it is very important to maintain a constant temperature until the vaccine is administered to the animals.

It is very important that the animals to be vaccinated are in good health always. Along with this, it is also necessary to provide sufficient nutrition to such an animal so that sufficient immunity can be obtained after vaccination. Even if the animal has worms in its body, the immunity of the vaccine may decrease. Hence it is beneficial to have a course of anthelmintic medication before vaccination.

In general, animals younger than four months should not be vaccinated. While administering the vaccine, it is necessary to properly restrain the animal so that a fixed dose of vaccine can be given at a fixed place. In cattle, the vaccine is usually placed on the left or right side of the neck. Sometimes the vaccine can also be placed in over the ribs well behind the shoulder.

There is often a swelling or lump at the injection site, but this usually goes away within a few days. There is no reason to worry about it. Vaccination is necessary before the epidemic season as it takes effect 21 days after administration. After vaccination, the animal can be given food and water.

Due to the effect of vaccination in animals, fever often occurs in animals and milk yield is also reduced in lactating animals. But this is only for a short time i.e. two or three days. However, if the cattle get an infectious disease, the loss of milk production is usually permanent and many serious diseases cause the death of the animal, so the herdsman must be vaccinated.

Each vaccine is manufactured and its quality checked – as per the rules laid down in the Drug and Cosmetic Act and approved tests. It is a primary and basic requirement that the vaccine is of excellent quality. But its maintenance and use is also very important. Vaccines also cause side effects if not properly stored and used.

Infectious diseases in cattle like FOOT AND MOUTH DISEASE (FMD), Throat Disease, Black Fever, Bovine Abortion, Rabies, PPR, Sheep Pox, etc. are found worldwide, so animals are vaccinated against these diseases.

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Vaccination to Various Animals for Disease prevention

Proper Handling of Livestock Vaccines

FOOT AND MOUTH DISEASE (FMD)

FOOT AND MOUTH DISEASE (FMD) vaccination is carried out by Animal Husbandry Department as part of the FOOT AND MOUTH DISEASE (FMD) control campaign in every country. All cattle and buffaloes above four years of age are covered every six months for vaccination against this disease.

 As FOOT AND MOUTH DISEASE (FMD) is a viral disease there is no direct treatment once the disease is spread but it can be controlled by vaccination. Animals suffering from this disease get sores in the mouth and feet and the milk production of the animal decreases.

Death occurs in young animals due to the direct effect of the poison on the heart. The bull is lame and loses the power to work. Thus causing a lot of financial loss. You must get vaccinated your animals against FOOT AND MOUNTH diseases (FMD) from time to time.

Another such important disease found in the world is THROAT. This disease is also found in cattle and buffaloes.

The germs of this disease are commonly found in the trachea of cattle. But this disease occurs when animals are stressed due to climate change.

They get infected by coming in contact with infected animals. If the animal is not treated quickly in this disease, it will die also. Since the incidence of this disease is high in the humid environment of monsoon, it is very important to vaccinate animals against this disease 20 to 25 days before the monsoon season.

Apart from this, sporadic epidemics of black fever i.e. anorexia and nodular fever i.e. BQ are seen in various areas of the World. Therefore, it is necessary to vaccinate the animals to protect them against these diseases, for which they are requested to contact the nearest government veterinary clinic.

Small ruminant animals i.e. sheep and goats are highly prone to outbreaks of PPR and the disease causes widespread mortality in cattle and the disease spreads very rapidly. A live vaccine for this disease is currently available which protects the animal against the disease for three years after a single injection.

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ENDOTOXEMIA

An Endo toxemia disease in sheep is also seen at the beginning of the monsoon. Especially when they eat fresh grass. Vaccines for both these sheep diseases are administered through sheep centers and veterinary clinics. So there is a special request to the sheep breeders to take advantage of it. Apart from this, animals are likely to die from rabies if they are fed by a rabid dog or animal.

SUMMARY

To get the maximum benefit of vaccination we need to implement a vaccination program based on the diseases found in our area. One can maximize the benefits of vaccination by keeping abreast of the arrival of new pathogens and new types of vaccines available in the market.

Animal vaccination is crucial for protecting animals from diseases caused by pathogenic microbes. The effectiveness of vaccination depends on the animal’s fitness and the type of vaccine, biological response, and duration of protection, maintenance, and potential dangers.

Precautions for vaccine purchase and storage include consulting a local veterinary officer, reading and following instructions on medicine labels, checking the temperature in the refrigerator, using a thermometer to check the temperature, and checking expiry dates. Orders should be placed on Mondays to avoid weekends.

Vaccine administration requires regular temperature checks, proper storage, and proper mixing of vaccines. Dead vaccines are less stimulating to the immune system and require large doses and frequent administration.

It is essential to maintain the vaccine at the right temperature and provide sufficient nutrition to the animals. In general, animals younger than four months should not be vaccinated. Proper restraint and proper administration of the vaccine are essential for proper protection.

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FAQs

1 What is the common side effect of vaccination in animals?

Ans. Due to the effect of vaccination on animals, fever often occurs in animals, and milk yield is also reduced in lactating animals. But this is only for a short time i.e. two or three days. However, if the cattle get an infectious disease, the loss of milk production is usually permanent, and many serious diseases cause the death of the animal, so the herdsman must be vaccinated.

2 Why is vaccination important in animals?

Ans. It is very important that the animals to be vaccinated are in good health always. Along with this, it is also necessary to provide sufficient nutrition to such an animal so that sufficient immunity can be obtained after vaccination. Even if the animal has worms in its body, the immunity to the vaccine may decrease. Hence it is beneficial to have a course of anthelmintic medication before vaccination.

3 What is the method of vaccination in animals?

Ans. The most common method of vaccine administration is by Injection.

 

 

 

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