Profitable Paddy Cultivation|Agriculture|General Information

How to Grow Profitable Paddy Cultivation|Agriculture|General Information for the beginners as Paddy Growing is very Important to meet demand of ever increasing population of the world.
Let us grow Profitable Paddy Cultivation|Agriculture|General Information
Profitable Paddy Cultivation|Agriculture|General Information

Introduction:

Orayza sativa  is a scientific/botanical name of the paddy, belongs to Poaceae-Graminea family with genus Oryza and order Cyperales.There are 24 species of genus Oryza, of which only two species i.e. Orayza sativa and Orayza glaberrima are cultivated in the world.

 Paddy is a major crop amongst the major cereals used by the vast section of the populations in the world.Paddy is being used as a staple food in India and many coutries of the world since ancient time. Paddy and Rice is a different things, there are certain difference between them as under.

Paddy seed is a mature grains having both pointed sides, covered with light brown cover called husk, inside husk Rice grain is exist. On removal of brown husk, we get the rice, which is being used by almost all the world populations directly or indirectly in their daily food. Paddy is grown in all counties of the world including India to meet the demand of ever increasing population of the world and countries.

Major world’s countries occupies area of cultivation for paddy crop are China, India, Bangladesh, Vietnam, Thailand, Myanmar, Japan, USA etc.

In India, top states having major area under Paddy cultivation are Andhrapradesh, Uttar Pradesh, West Bangal, Orissa, Assam, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Gujarat etc.

Nutritional Value of the Paddy-Rice
ParticularsNutritional Value/100 grams
CarbohydratesAround 28-32 grams
Energy125-155 Calories
Protein2-3 grams
Fat05-0.9 grams
Fibre01 gram

Vitamin B1,B3,Iron,Mg,

Phosphorus,Zinc, Pottasium etc

Small to Trace amount

Ideal Soil:

Black Soil-Clay Loam Soil having enough moisture retention capacity is considered as a best for the Paddy Cultivation, as Paddy require ample water throughout its growth and development stages.

However, it can be also grown on Sandy Loam soil, whereat sufficient irrigated water is available. However Sandy Loan soil has little water retention capacity, so to conserve moisture entire paddy field is covered with soil bunds with enough height.

Profitable Paddy Cultivation|Agriculture|General Information
Profitable Paddy Cultivation|Agriculture|General Information
Paddy Rice Cultivation

Climate Requirement:

Paddy can be grown at 2500-300 MSL (Above Mean Sea Level) whereat enough rainfall, Clay Loam Soil and irrigation facilities are easily available.

Paddy require high to Moderate temperature ranging from 20 to 40 degree Celsius. It can also tolerate the temperature up to 42 degree Celsius. However higher temperature above 42 degree Celsius especially during tillering and milking stage can affect the overall productivity of the Paddy crop per hectare.

Profitable Paddy Cultivation|Agriculture|General Information

Profitable Paddy Cultivation|Agriculture|General Information

Land Preparation before sowing the crop:

Immediate after harvesting of summer crops, plough the land using tractor or wooden plough, so as to soils is exposed to the sunlight, which may result in to the better water retention capacity.

Irrigate the soil 01-02 week before sowing which results into unwanted plants (weeds) come out from the soil results in to lesser number of weed plants in the proposed paddy field.

Ploughing can also be carried out just after first rain at vapsa condition can be also useful in removal of unwanted plants from the soil.

One day before transplanting of paddy seedling, fill the field with water and carry out cross way ploughing using bullock plough and make the entire field in muddy condition suitable for transplant in the field.

Profitable Paddy Cultivation|Agriculture|General Information

Seed Treatment:

Paddy seed must be treated using Carbendezim/Pyroqulon solution @ 2 g/litre of water for ONE kg of seed to provide protection against soil borne, bacterial and fungal diseases.

Profitable Paddy Cultivation|Agriculture|General Information

Seed Rate

For Transplanted Paddy-30-35 kg/ ha

For SRI- System of Rice Intensification:06-09 kg/ha

Profitable Paddy Cultivation|Agriculture|General Information

Sowing time

Transplanted Rice: June- July  (Second fortnight of June- Second fortnight of July)

For SRI: June- July  (Second fortnight of June- Second fortnight of July)

Ideal Spacing

20 x 10-15 cm between rows and plants

Profitable Paddy Cultivation|Agriculture|General Information

Profitable Paddy Cultivation|Agriculture|General Information

Fertilizer Management

N Kg/HaP Kg/HaK-Kg/HaFYM tone/haGreen Manuring 
60-10050501005 t/ha. Usually 3-4 week before sowing the crop

Water Management:

Paddy is a water friendly plant and require water logged condition up to 100 days from sowing dates. Water management is a very important aspect in paddy cultivation up to maturity stage. Paddy crops must be irrigate at various growth stages like Tillering, Ear Emergence, Flowering and Milking stage. It is essential that enough water level must be maintained in the field, depends on the height of the seedlings. Take care that there should not be water level above the plant height, which may leads to  plant in dead conditions at all.

Weed Management:

Irrigate the field before sowing of the crops, which allows unwanted plants comes out from the soil that can be buried in the field through cross way ploughing using tractor or wooden plough.

Pre emergence  Herbicides like Butachlor @ 1-1.5 kg/ha and Anilofos @ 0.4 kg/ha can be used for weed control

Herbicides like MCPA, Propanil, 2,4-D@ 0.50 kg/ha can be applied  after sowing/post emergence of weed in the paddy wet field.

Important Varieties of the Paddy  as under:

SNName of the Major Varieties
01Sona Masuri
02Pusa Rice
03Jyothi
04Jaya
05HMT Rice
06Bora Rice
07Basmati Rice
08Atop
09Annapoorna
10Ambemohar
11Pusa Basmati

First Rice in India and World

-Pusa Basmati-First Superior quality Basmati Rice developed by IARI,New Delhi

-PRH-1: First ever hybrid variety of BASMATI RICE

-Jaya: First Dwarf variety of Rice in India and also resistant to Blast Disease

-TN-1: Imported from Tiawan-First Dwarf Variety of Rice

-IR-8-First High Yielding variety and resistant to Bacterial Leaf spot- Developed by IRRI, Philippines

Insect Pest Management:

Paddy grown in rainy season provides favorable condition to the insects and pests survival and attack on the standing crops at various growth stages of the crop, which resulted in to 30-35% loss in crop yield.

Major Insect-Pests attack on the Paddy crops as under:

Stem Borer (Yellow, White and PinkPaddy HispaPaddy Root WeevilPaddy Leaf Folder
Brown Plant hopperCase WormGandhi BugHusk Insect
  1. Natural Enemies like Grasshopper, Spider, Ants, Dragonflies must be conserved in the field.
  2. Trichogramma japonicum  biological agent may be released @ 1 lakh/ha for eating eggs of yellow stem borer and leaf folder in the field. Take care that it must be released on the high time  for effective control of the insects-pests.
  3. Insecticides like Chlorpyriphos/Monocrotophos/Imidacliprid/Quinalphos can be sprayed as per need
  4. Neem Seed Kernel Extraction or Limbodi Oil  @5-6% may be sprayed on regular interval of 5-7 days  in the field for control of bugs.
  5. Spray Acephate or Profenophos 2.00 ml/litre of water For Control of Stem Borer
  6. Spray Acephate or Profenophos 2.00 ml/litre of water For Control of Leaf Folder
Profitable Paddy Cultivation|Agriculture|General Information
Paddy Rice Cultivation
Profitable Paddy Cultivation|Agriculture|General Information

Diseases Management:

SNDiseaseBiological ControlChemical Control
01Blast-Seed Treatment with Biological agent like Trichoderma viridie @ 10 g/kg before sowing

Foliar Spray of Trichoderma viridie @5 ml/litre

Seed treatment with  Carbendazim (50WP) @ 2 g/kg  before sowing

Foliar spray of Carbendazim (50WP) @ 500 g/ha

02Brown SpotSeed Treatment with Biological agent like Trichoderma viridie @ 5-10 g/kg before sowing

 

Seed treatment with  Carbendazim (50WP) @ 2 g/kg  before sowing

Foliar spray of Propiconazole 25 EC @ 500 ml/ha.

03Sheath RotSeed Treatment with Biological agent like Trichoderma viridie @ 5-10 g/kg before sowing

 

Two spray of Carbendazim (50WP) @ 500 g or Mancozeb (45 WP)  @ 1000 g with 500 litre of water  at  boot leaf stage

Two spray of Hexaconazole (75 WG) @ 2 ml/ liter. First spray at the time of  disease appearance and second spray 15 days later

 

04Sheath BlightSeed Treatment with Biological agent like Pseudomonas flourescense @ 5-10 g/kg before sowing

 

Two spray of Hexaconazole (75 WG) @ 100 mg/ liter water. First spray at the time of  disease appearance and second spray 15 days later

 

05Grain DiscolorationNILSpray the crop at boot leaf stage with Mancozeb (45 WP) 0.5000 g/litre or Carbendazim @ 500 g/ha
06False SmutNILTwo spraying of  Propiconazole (25 EC) @ 500 ml/ha in 500 litre water at boot leaf and 50% at flowering stage.
07Tungro Virus DiseaseSummer Deep ploughing and burning of stubbles Control Vector in the nursery by spraying  Carbofuran (3w) 170 g/m2 after 10 days of sowing
Profitable Paddy Cultivation|Agriculture|General Information

Harvesting:

Harvesting of the paddy is carried out after 120-140 days of sowing varies from varieties to varieties. Harvesting can be done using instruments like sickle and make the hay of the paddy and allow it to dry under sunlight for 2-3 days. Afterwards detached seeds from the hay after throwing it on the wooden table or using thresher.

Average Yield per Hectare

Average yield of Paddy-Rice crop is 06-08 tons/ha in India. However, some high yielding varieties in the developed countries may give yield up to 10-14 tons/ha at all.

Crop Production Expenses per hectare

Approximately Crop production expense per hectare is INR 35000-40000 in India.

Profitable Paddy Cultivation|Agriculture|General Information

Profit/Hectare

INR 50000-60000 per hectare in India

International and National Research Station

International- International Rice Research Station, Los Banos, Laguna in Philippines

National- Central Rice Research Institute (CRRI), Bidhyadharpur, Cuttack, Odisha.

Profitable Paddy Cultivation|Agriculture|General Information

FAQs:

1.What is cultivation of paddy?

Ans.: Paddy is a Cereal Crop which is grown in puddled soil  especially in the Rainy season.

2.What are the months of paddy cultivation?

Ans. Second week of June to Second week of July (During Rainy Season).

3.In which soil paddy is cultivated?

Ans. Paddy is cultivated in Clay Loam soil having high moisture retention capacity.

4.What is the growth period of paddy?

Ans.: Growth or Maturity period of Paddy is ranging from 120-135 days varies from varieties to varieties.

5.Where is paddy cultivation?

Ans.: Paddy is Cultivated throughout the world, where sufficient rain or Irrigation facility is available.

6. Which type of Crop Paddy is?

Ans.: Paddy is a Cereal-Monocot Crop.

 

 

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