Pigeon pea Farming

Pigeon pea Farming

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Pigeon pea Farming

Pigeon Pea Introduction:

Name of the CropPigeon Pea
Scientific NameCajanus cajan (L.)
FamilyFabaceae
Origin CountryIndia and Africa
OrderFabales
Major Pigeon pea Growing CountryIndia, Myanmar,Kenya,China, Malawi,Uganda ,Mozambique,Tanzania and Nepal
Major Pigeon pea growing states In IndiaMadhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Gujarat, Karnataka, Telangana and Andhra Pradesh
  • Among the various crops grown in our country, chickpea and pigeon pea are important in terms of area and production.
  • Pigeon pea occupies the second most important place after gram.
  • Pigeon pea is believed to be native to India and Africa. It is grown in an area of more than 56.00 lakh hectares in India.
  • Although Pigeon pea is the second most important pulse crop in India, its average yield per hectare is 800 to 900 kg.
  • Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Gujarat, Karnataka, Telangana and Andhra Pradesh are the major growing states of Pigeon pea in our country.
  • Pigeon pea is a non-irrigated crop grown using the monsoon rains and subsequent moisture stored in the soil. Hence it is an important crop for semi-arid areas.
  • As the roots in Pigeon pea draw moisture from far down in the soil, it can withstand dry conditions to some extent.
  • The dry seeds of Pigeon pea contain about 22.3 percent protein. The chemical composition of Pigeon pea seeds is as shown below. Protein-23.4 percent, fat-1.3 percent, carbohydrates-59.7 percent, fiber-1.2 percent, calcium-8.0 mg/100 ml gram, iron element – 5.8 mg/100 ml gram.
  • Pigeon pea stalk and gotar are found as by-products of Pigeon pea.
  • Pigeon pea stalk is used in villages as fuel and also for building kachha residential houses.
  • Pigeon pea gotar are excellent food for dairy and other domesticated animals.
  • Pigeon pea is mostly made as a mixed intercrop. However, some farmers in some district Pigeon pea are cultivating as a single crop.
  • Apart from this, in some district district, this crop is planted as a semi-winter crop after paddy harvesting.
  • Root nodules present in the root nodules fix nitrogen from the air, and the deep roots of it replenish the soil, which helps in maintaining and increasing soil fertility.

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Pigeon pea Farming

Medicinal Value of Pigeon pea

  • Pigeon pea is a rich source of protein
  • Pigeon pea is a rich in dietary fibers
  • Pigeon pea has anti-oxidant properties
  • Pigeon pea helps in Blood sugar regulation
  • Pigeon pea is good for heart health
  • Pigeon pea also useful in weight management
  • Pigeon pea is  aid for anemia
  • Pigeon pea also support Immune system

Pigeon pea name in different Indian Languages:

English:Pigeon Pea
Hindi:अरहर दाल (Arhar Dal)
Bengali:অরহর ডাল (Arhar Dal)
Tamil:துவரம் பருப்பு (Thuvaram Paruppu)
Telugu:తోరణి పప్పు (Toranipappu)
Kannada:ತೊಗರಿ ಬೇಳೆ (Togari Bele)
Malayalam:തുവരപ്പരിപ്പ് (Thuvaram Parippu)
Marathi:तुरीची दाळ (Turi Chi Dal)
Gujarati:Tuver

Climate requirement for Pigeon pea Farming

  • This crop can be grown successfully in a variety of climates.
  • High humidity and frost are harmful to crops.
  • Pigeon pea prefers a warm and humid climate during initial vegetative growth. But, cool and dry weather is more likely after the onset of flowering.
  • Crops are often burnt due to snowfall.
  • This crop requires high temperature and long day length during vegetative growth before flowering.
  • A shorter day length and lower temperature helps in flowering.

Pigeon pea Farming

Soil requirement for Pigeon pea Farming

  • Pigeon pea is a crop grown in a variety of soils. It can be grown in light loamy soils to heavy black soils.
  • Acidic and alkaline soils as well as low drainage capacity are not suitable for this crop.
  • As normal waterlogging is harmful to this crop, irrigated and well-drained soil should be selected.
  • Moisture shortage or excess moisture adversely affects germination and results in reduced seed germination.
  • As this crop has to depend on the moisture stored in the soil during the reproductive period at the time of flowering and budding, it is very important that the soil has good moisture storage capacity.

Land preparation for Pigeon pea Farming

  • Before the monsoon collect crop residues of previous crop and one or two ploughings is to be carried out.
  • After rains horizontal plowing is done using plough.
  • Manure should be applied once in two-three years before plowing.
  • If there is a problem of termites in the soil, application of castor cake every year can reduce the termite infestation and also add organic matter to the soil.

Sowing time for Pigeon pea Farming

  • As Pigeon pea is a monsoon crop, it should be sown immediately after after adequate rainfall.
  • In some places, farmers also sow it before the rains.
  • Studies have shown that late planting reduces yield.
  • Early maturing varieties should be planted in mid-July after the onset of monsoon, as early-maturing varieties are planted in the beginning of monsoon as the previous rains cause the flowers and pods to drop.
  • If planting cannot be done on time, late planting can be done successfully by reducing the distance between two plants in two rows and furrows.
  • Winter sowing of Pigeon pea is done in October-November after paddy harvesting. This crop is prepared from the moisture stored in the soil.
  • Pigeon pea is planted in summer season in February March to get early green pods for vegetables.

Sowing distance and seed rate for Pigeon pea Farming

  • Pigeon pea is generally grown as an intercrop with different crops. However, in some areas Pigeon pea crops alone are also cultivated. Following are the recommended sowing distances according to the type of mixed crop, type of variety and type of soil.
Types of Varieties

 

Sowing distance

(cm)

 

Seed rate (Kg/ha)Other Information
Early maturing:

120-150 days

 

60 X 2020-25Pusa Arhar 16, Pusa Arhar 2017-1,GT-100,GT-101
Medium late maturing (from 160-180 days

 

90-12 X 20-3015-20AGT-2, BDN-2,GT-103

 

Grown as an Inter or mixed crop:

-Early Maturing

-Medium Late Maturing

 

90 X 30 OR 120 X 50-606-7In between.

two furrows of Pigeon pea short duration pulse crops or millet, jowar, fallow paddy, maize etc. can be grown

 

  • It is very important to maintain sufficient number of plants per hectare to get high production.
  • Farmers are not conscious enough about the sowing distance of Pigeon pea.
  • Pigeon pea plants should be evenly spaced in the field, not more than one plant should be in a field.

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Pigeon pea Farming

Early maturing (120-150 days) varieties of Pigeon pea:

  • Gujarat Tuvar 100
  • Gujarat Tuvar 101
  • Gujarat Tuvar 102 (semi-winter planting)
  • Gujarat Tuvar 1 for vegetables

Medium maturing (160-180 days) Varieties of Pigeon pea:

  • BDN 2
  • ICPL 87119 (Asha)
  • AGT 2
  • Vaishali (BSMR 853) (Red-flowered variety)
  • GJP 1
  • GT 104 (Red-flowered variety)
  • GT 106

Mixed cropping system for Pigeon pea Farming

  • Weeds can be controlled by intercropping. Legumes cover the soil with vegetative growth. Generally short duration pulse crops like mung, urad and chola and cereal crops like millet, maize, paddy are sown along with Pigeon pea.
  • Between the two furrows of Pigeon pea that crop is sown in different proportions.
  • 1 to 3 rows of pulses or pulses crops are kept between two rows of Pigeon pea, which are suitable for that area and the pulses crops are included in mixed crop with Pigeon pea.
  • When Pigeon pea is planted in summer for vegetables, brinjal- Pigeon pea mixed crop is taken, so that the price of brinjal can be higher during summer and at the beginning of monsoon.
  • But currently no variety has been released by the Agricultural University except local varieties in the market for summer planting. Incorporation of early maturing pulses and pulses in mixed cropping system does not reduce pulse production compared to pulses alone, while intercropping with cereals results in general reduction in pulses production, but overall economic benefits due to additional cereal production.

Pigeon pea Farming

Fertilizers requirement for Pigeon pea Farming:

Organic fertilizer for Pigeon pea Farming

  • While preparing the land before sowing, 10 to 15 tons of well decomposed FYM or liquid manure per hectare is applied, if green manuring done before sowing the crop, organic elements are added to the soil and fertility increases.
  • Application of castor cake along with addition of organic matter protects the crop against termites during the early growing season.

Bacterial culture treatment for Pigeon pea Farming:

  • Being a leguminous crop, providing it with an efficient rhizobium bacterium culture layer improves the fixation of nitrogen from the air by the roots, as well as increases crop production and soil fertility.
  • Seed treatment with 10 ml of liquid organic fertilizer per kg of seed and let them dry in the shade.
  • If the seeds is to be treated with a fungicide, after applying the fungicide, the bacterial culture should be given and the amount of organic fertilizer should be doubled.
  • The use of PSB culture converts the phosphorus in the soil in an available form, which has the direct benefit of saving the cost of chemical fertilizers.
  • Application of this fertilizer saves about 50-100 kg/ha of phosphorous chemical fertilizers, and increases production by about 10 to 30 percent.

Chemical fertilizers for Pigeon pea Farming

 

Elements/ha

 

Fertilizer/ha

 

Time and mode of fertilization and points to consider

 

Basic Fertilizer:

Basal Application:

25 kg Nitrogen/ha

50 kg Phosphorus/ha

 

312 kg SSP, 54 kg Urea OR 108 kg DAP. Separate application of sulfur containing fertilizer

 

Application of chemical fertilizers in furrows at the time of sowing
Zinc

 

-Apply zinc sulphate at the rate 12 to 15 kg/ha

-sprinkle 0.05 per cent with 0.25 per cent lime on the plants.

 

As pigeon pea crop is a legume crop, it does not require more nitrogen and supplemental fertilizers. If the effect of zinc deficiency is observed in pigeon pea crops, then zinc sulphate should be given.

 

Note: As Pigeon pea is a leguminous crop, the crop itself obtains its required nitrogen through fixation from the air, hence there is no need for supplemental fertilizer. But, if moisture shortage at the flowering stage and the fall of the flower increases, then 2 percent urea (200 g/10 liters of water) or 19:19:19 should be sprayed as per 50 g/10 liters.


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Pigeon pea Farming

Irrigation Requirement for Pigeon pea Farming:

  • This crop is grown as a non-irrigated crop so there is no need for irrigation.
  • However, by providing irrigation in dry conditions, the production of this crop increases significantly.
  • Normally at the beginning of flowering, when the pods are filled with seeds, the rate of photosynthesis is significantly reduced if the soil moisture is drawn.
  • If there is such a situation at the time of flowering, the pods fall instead of sitting.
  • A humidity of 20°C at the time of flowering maintains the rate of photosynthesis, which is necessary for the plant to set pods.
  • It provides carbon, so that the flowers do not fall and the pods are set sufficiently, which means that the soil should have adequate moisture at the time of flowering, while watering after the pods set improves grain development and production, and in areas where plants are prone to blight it is controlled.
  • Drip irrigation improves yield and grain quality.

Interculturing and Weeding for Pigeon pea Farming:

  • Weeds are harmful during the first two months of crop growth.
  • Necessary weeding should be done during this period. About two times of hand weeding and two times of intercropping are required.
  • If intercropping is taken, after harvesting the first crop, the roots of the previous crop should be removed from the field.
  • Spraying herbicide when there is shortage of farm labour.
Herbicide Name (Market Name)

 

Active element

(Gram/ha)

Commercial

Name (gram/ml/ha)

Quantity in 10 lit water  (gram/ml)

 

Time of Herbicide spraying
Alachlor 50 percent EC

 

2000-2500

 

4000-5000

 

80-100

 

As a pre-emergence (0-3

day)

 

Oxyfluorfan 23.5 percent EC

 

 

100-125

 

425-530

 

85-10.6

 

As a pre-emergence (0-3

day)

 

Pendimethalin 30% EC

 

750-1000

 

2500-3330

 

50-67

 

As a pre-emergence (0-3

day)

 

Pendimethalin (30 percent) + Imezathapir (2 percent) EC

 

 

800-960

 

2500-3000

 

50-60

 

As a pre-emergence (0-3 day)

 

Quizalofop-ethyl 5 percent EC

 

 

50

 

1000

 

20

 

Grass weed control, post-emergence (15-20 day)

 

 

Fenoxaprop-p-ethyl 9.3 percent (9.0) EC

 

 

67.5

 

750

 

15

 

Grass weed control, post-emergence (15-20 day)

 

Propaquizafop 10 percent EC

 

 

50

 

500

 

10

 

Grass weed control, post-emergence (15-20 day)

 

Imezathapir 10 percent EC

 

 

70

 

700

 

14

 

Pre-emergence

0-3 days) and post-emergence (15-20

day)

 

Imezathapir (35%) + Imazemox (35 percent) EC

 

 

70

 

100

 

2

 

Pre-emergence

0-3 days) and post-emergence (15-20

day)

 

Crop rotation for Pigeon pea Farming:

  • Intensive use of land has become imperative in modern farming system. Appropriate crop rotation is important to improve soil fertility and efficient use of fertilizers in intensive cropping systems.
  • Since Pigeon pea cultivation is rain-fed, a second crop cannot be taken after late ripening Pigeon pea in a single year.
  • Apart from that, since pulses and cereals are taken as intercrops, there is no need for crop rotation even in the second year.
  • Pigeon pea mixed crop or medium-late maturing single Pigeon pea, then alternated with summer millet.
  • After taking brinjal + Pigeon pea (summer) vegetables. Wheat can be taken in winter season.
  • Early maturing Pigeon pea, winter wheat followed by summer mung or bajra have ample possibilities.

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Pigeon pea Farming

Crop Protection for Pigeon pea Farming:

Major Insect Pest:

  1. Pod Bore: Helicoverpa Armigera
  • Symptoms:
  • Caterpillar bore in to pods and enters in to the pods
  • Borer-Half inside pods and half outside hanging
  • Round shape hole in pods
  • Control Measures:
  • Sow Sunflower as a Inter crop
  • Fix Bird preaches 50-60/ha
  • Spray either with Dimethoate 30% EC 1.25 l/ha or Emamectin benzoate 5% SG 200-225 g/ha or Indoxacarb 15.8% SC 0.35 l/ha
  1. Plume Moth:
  • Symptoms:
  • Small hole on surface of pod
  • Control Measures: Fix Bird preaches 50-60/ha
  • Spray with Indoxacarb 15.8% SC 0.35 l/ha
  • Spray with Neem oil 2%
  1. Red Gram Pod Fly
  • Symptoms:
  • Due to infestation of red gram pod fly dark brown encrustation on the pod wall is found
  • Dry pods showing pin head size hole at all
  • Seeds shriveled, striped and partially eaten by it
  • Control Measures:
  • Fix Bird preaches 50-60/ha
  • Spray with Indoxacarb 15.8% SC 0.35 l/ha
  • Spray with Neem oil 2%
  • Spray with phosalone 0.07%

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Pigeon pea Farming

Major Diseases:

  1. Wilt: Fusarium Spp
  • Symptoms:
  • It is a soil borne disease
  • Initially leaves turn pale yellow in color and finally drop to ground
  • Sudden wilting of plant from top to bottom is observed
  • Finally plants dies in few days at all
  • Control Measures:
  • Before sowing seed treatment with Carbendazim or Thiram @ 2 g/kg of seed
  • Basal Application of Neem Based Cake @ 150-16 kg/ha
  • Affected spot should be drenched with Carbendazim @ 1 gm/ litre
  1. Pigeonpea sterility mosaic virus-PPSMV
  • Symptoms:
  • This disease is spread through vector Aceria cajani
  • Affected plant stunted in growth
  • Shorten Internode
  • Severe mosaic in leaflets with complete sterility, mild mosaic with partial sterility and ring spots characterized by a green island surrounded by a chlorotic halo.
  • Control Measures:
  • Remove infected plants from the filed
  • Initiate spraying of Fenazaquin @ 1 ml/ liter just after appearance of the disease and thereafter repeat after every 15 days.
  1. Root Rot :Rhizoctonia bataticola
  • Symptoms:
  • Host plants: Young seedlings and growing plants also
  • Yellowing of lower leaves and finally drop off to ground
  • Dry weather followed by rain can accelerate intensity of this disease
  • Control Measures:
  • Before sowing seed treatment with Carbendazim or Thiram @ 2 g/kg of seed
  • Affected spot should be drenched with Carbendazim @ 1 gm/ litre

Pigeon pea Farming

Yield of Pigeon pea:

  • An average yield of 1500 to 2000 kg/ha can be obtained.

FAQs:

1. What is the scientific name of pigeon pea?

Ans: The Scientific name of pigeon pea is Cajanus cajan (L.)

2. Major pigeon pea growing states in India?

Ans: Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Bihar, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka,Punjab,Kerala and Tamil Nadu

3. Major pigeon pea growing Country in the World?

Ans: India, Myanmar,Kenya,China, Malawi,Uganda ,Mozambique,Tanzania and Nepal

4. Which type of soil is suitable for pigeon pea cultivation in India?

Ans: Pigeon pea is a crop grown in a variety of soils. It can be grown in light loamy soils to heavy black soils. Acidic and alkaline soils as well as low drainage capacity are not suitable for this crop. As normal waterlogging is harmful to this crop, irrigated and well-drained soil should be selected.Moisture shortage or excess moisture adversely affects germination and results in reduced seed germination. As this crop has to depend on the moisture stored in the soil during the reproductive period at the time of flowering and budding, it is very important that the soil has good moisture storage capacity.

5. What is the spacing and seed rate for pigeon pea cultivation?

Early maturing: 120-150 days- Sowing distance 60 X 20 cm and seed rate: 20-25 kg/ha60 X 20 cm and seed rate: 20-25 kg/ha Medium late maturing (from 160-180 days)- Sowing distance 90-12 X 20-30 cm and seed rate: 15-20 kg/ha Grown as an Inter or mixed crop:-Early Maturing-Medium Late Maturing: Sowing distance 90 X 30 OR 120 X 50-60 cm and seed rate: 6-7 kg/ha

6. What is the average yield of pigeon pea?

Ans: An average yield of 1500 to 2000 kg/ha can be obtained.

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