Nematode Management in Protected Cultivation-Green House

Nematode Management in Protected Cultivation-Green House

Nematode Management in Protected Cultivation-Green House

What is Nematode-Round worms?

  • Nematode is one of the animal found on the earth also known as a Roundworm generally attack on animals, plants and living in the upper layer of soil, marine water, ponds water, river shore etc. Among all these worms, roundworms which have about 110 sub-species cause more damage. Meloidogyne incognita and M. javanica are particularly damaging to these roundworms and these two subspecies are found in our country. In our country, a loss of 2100 crore rupees has been cited in 24 crops as per the study in the All India Integrated Worm Scheme.

Nematode-Round worms Susceptible Crops/Fruits:

CactusHibiuscusMulberry
OakPalmPine
RoseGrapesAlmond
AppleApricotAvacado
CitrusOlivePeach
PearPlumBean
BeetsCornCucumber
Egg PlantGarlicMelon
OnionPeaTurnip
SpinachPotatoesSweet Potatoes

Also Read….Summer Green gram-Mung Bean Farming


Nematode Management in Protected Cultivation-Green House

Introduction of Nematode-Round worms

  • State Horticulture Mission and National Horticulture Mission, New Delhi provide subsidy of 65 percent to farmers for building greenhouses and nethouses in the Country/state.
  • That is why farmers are building greenhouses on a large scale in the state/Country and their numbers are increasing day by day.
  • Central, North and South districts of the country have a good number of greenhouses. Also, many greenhouses have been built in many districts of India and many new ones are also being built.
  • We need to understand well that in greenhouses as the outside temperature is high as well as in hot states the temperature decreases but in North Indian states like Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Jammu-Kashmir etc., greenhouses are built to increase the temperature in the greenhouse as the outside temperature is low. According to this average 25° to 35°C temperature is maintained in the greenhouse.
  • Most of the farmers do not know which crops are grown in greenhouses. Generally, crops which cannot be grown outdoors well productively like Coloured Chilli (various colors), Cucumber, Sweet Potato, Different types of roses, Gerbera, etc. should be grown in green house.
  • Also, leafy vegetables such as fenugreek, coriander etc. can be grown in summer.
  • If the greenhouse is well constructed, the crop is less susceptible to pests and diseases. But the infestation of pests and diseases is high only if the plastic or net (Tiny hole) is torn somewhere or the entry doors are not closed properly or are kept open.
  • If it is not sterilized first, the first crop may be good, but in the last stage of the crop, the infestation of roundworms will increase in the soil and the second crop will be completely spoiled no matter what we do. Symptoms of insect diseases in greenhouses and methods of prevention are indicated.
  • Thus, the number of nematodes that damage crops on earth is about 30,000.But these 3000 worms are not seen damaging the same crop in the same region.
  • Among all these worms, roundworms which have about 110 sub-species cause more damage.
  • Meloidogyne incognita and M. javanica are particularly damaging to these roundworms and these two subspecies are found in our country.
  • Apart from this, the damage caused by these two species is also high in the whole world. According to an estimate, about 100 billion US dollars are lost in the world due to different worms.
  • A loss of 10 billion US dollars has been recorded in America alone.
  • In Taiwan, 35 to 40 percent of losses are recorded from worms. Thus, a study found that worms reduce crop production by 10 to 12 percent.
  • In our country, a loss of 2100 crore rupees has been cited in 24 crops as per the study in the All India Integrated Worm Scheme.
  • If we include all the crops of our country, this loss is likely to be 12000 to 13000 crores per year.

Also Read….Sweet Potatoes Farming


Nematode Management in Protected Cultivation-Green House

Nematode Management in Protected Cultivation-Green House

Symptoms of Nematode Damage:

  • Crops grown in greenhouses, if root nodules are found early in the crop, do not grow and eventually fail.
  • Also in the post-sowing stage of the crop, the plants are stunted, the leaves turn yellow and the edges dry up.
  • Eventually plant growth stops and fruit number and size are affected. When examining such a plant, its roots are found to have numerous small and large nodules. So, no matter how much fertilizer is given to the plant, the plant cannot take it.
  • Realize that the plant appears to have root cancer.
  • Eventually such a plant dries up. Fruits are few in number and small in size. Hence, the market price is low, if no pest control measures are taken in time, the crop fails completely and the farmer suffers a lot of financial loss.
  • Due to the formation of such root knots, the root has numerous small and large holes through which disease-causing fungi and bacteria easily enter the root and the roots of the plant die due to rotting.
  • Apart from roundworms, root-cutting worms, root-staining worms, kidney-shaped worms also infest greenhouse crops to a lesser extent. But the loss of roundworms can be seen very well with the naked eye.

Favorable Weather for Nematode Infestation:

  • Thus, as seen earlier, as the temperature inside the greenhouse is lower than outside, it is very suitable for worms and in any type of soil in the greenhouse, infestation of worms is seen.
  • But in well-drained soil, its infestation is particularly severe. Drips also retain moisture in the soil for a long time, thus increasing worm infestation. Also, most of the worms enter the greenhouse through the roots of chillies, tomato, etc. That means even in the soil where there are no worms, the worms come through the worms.
  • Other greenhouse crops like Chilli, Tomato, Fenugreek, Cucumber, Bitter gourd, Coriander are all worm infested crops. Worms are also found in large numbers in weed like chil, bhumsi, in greenhouses.
  • In this way a single sowing of worm-infested crop gives a good increase in its population as the roundworm has a life cycle of 25 to 30 days at 25 to 30 degree celcius temperature and finally a mature female lays an average of 500 eggs in a viscous substance that is unaffected by the weather.

Nematode Management in Protected Cultivation-Green House

Nematode Management in Protected Cultivation-Green House

Nematode Control measures:

  • Taking action to control worms before they become infested in greenhouse crops can lead to more effective control at a lower cost.
  • Before sowing the crop for the first time, whatever the type of soil, it should be completely sterilized with fumigant  like Dazomet, Metham sodium etc. Worms, bacteria, insects, vermin etc. in the soil will be destroyed.
  • Worm-infested trees should not be used for planting in greenhouses.
  • Before sterilizing the soil, if using, apply manure to the soil so that the weeds are also destroyed.
  • Organic fertilizers as much as possible like Neem seed kernel, castor cake etc should be used.
  • Use large quantities of ready-made good quality organic fertilizers such as poultry manure, sugar factory pressmud, vermi compost etc.
  • Apply biopesticides like Trichoderma viridie, Pacillomyces Lilacinus, Pseudomonas fluorescens etc. at the rate of 2 to 3 kg per acre in furrows and later mixed with organic fertilizers in a ring around the plant. These biological insecticides and fungicides can also be dissolved in water in drips.
  • If the infestation of worms is high, then the effect of such biological drugs will be reduced, so it is beneficial to sterilize the soil with soil fumigant first.
  • Now by grafting on worm resistant root stock, worm infestation can be prevented.
  • Burning out the worm-infested roots along with the fibrous roots after the crop is completed in the greenhouse also reduces worm infestation to a great extent.
  • Human traffic gate also enters the worm polyhouse to restrict its movement. The worms enter the polyhouse with the soil attached to the farm implements.
  • Before constructing polyhouses to carry out worm analysis and not to construct polyhouses in that field if worms are present in the soil.

Also Read….Tips to Reduce Crop Production Costs and Maximize Profit


Nematode Management in Protected Cultivation-Green House

Nematode Management in Protected Cultivation-Green House

Summary:

  • We need to understand well that in greenhouses as the outside temperature is high in us as well as in hot states the temperature decreases but in North Indian states like Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Jammu-Kashmir etc., greenhouses are built to increase the temperature in the greenhouse as the outside temperature is low. According to this average 25° to 35°C temperature is maintained in the greenhouse.Most of the farmers do not know which crops are grown in greenhouses. Generally, crops which cannot be grown outdoors well productively like Coloured Chilli (various colors), Cucumber, Sweet Potato, Different types of roses, Gerbera, etc. should be grown in flowering plants.If the greenhouse is well constructed, the crop is less susceptible to pests and diseases. But the infestation of pests and diseases is high only if the plastic or net (Tiny hole) is torn somewhere or the entry doors are not closed properly or are kept open.
  • Among all these worms, roundworms which have about 110 sub-species cause more damage.Meloidogyne incognita and M. javanica are particularly damaging to these roundworms and these two subspecies are found in our country. In our country, a loss of 2100 crore rupees has been cited in 24 crops as per the study in the All India Integrated Worm Scheme.Thus, as seen earlier, as the temperature inside the greenhouse is lower than outside, it is very suitable for worms and in any type of soil in the greenhouse, infestation of worms is seen. But in well-drained soil, its infestation is particularly severe. Drips also retain moisture in the soil for a long time, thus increasing worm infestation. Also, most of the worms enter the greenhouse through the roots of chillies, tomato, etc.
  • That means even in the soil where there are no worms, the worms come through the worms. Other greenhouse crops like Chilli, Tomato, Fenugreek, Cucumber, Bitter gourd, Coriander are all worm infested crops. Worms are also found in large numbers in weed like chil, bhumsi, in greenhouses.Before sowing the crop for the first time, whatever the type of soil, it should be completely sterilized with fumigant drugs like Dazomet, Metham sodium etc. Worms, bacteria, insects, vermin etc. in the soil will be destroyed.
  • Worm-infested trees should not be used for planting in greenhouses. Apply biopesticides like Trichoderma viridie, Pacillomyces Lilacinus, Pseudomonas fluorescens etc. at the rate of 2 to 3 kg per acre in furrows and later mixed with organic fertilizers in a ring around the plant. These biological insecticides and fungicides can also be dissolved in water in drips. Farmer friends, if the infestation of worms is high, then the effect of such biological drugs will be reduced, so it is beneficial to sterilize the soil with soil fumigant first.Before constructing polyhouses to carry out worm analysis and not to construct polyhouses in that field if worms are present in the soil.

Nematode Management in Protected Cultivation-Green House

Nematode Management in Protected Cultivation-Green House

FAQs

1. What is Nematode?

• Ans: Nematode is one of the animal found on the earth. It is also known as a Roundworm. It is a one type of parasite generally attack on animals, plants and living in the upper layer of soil, marine water, ponds water, river shore etc. Among all these worms, roundworms which have about 110 sub-species cause more damage. Meloidogyne incognita and M. javanica are particularly damaging to these roundworms and these two subspecies are found in our country. In our country, a loss of 2100 crore rupees has been cited in 24 crops as per the study in the All India Integrated Worm Scheme.

2. How Nematode damaged to crop and cause loss to country’s economy?

• Ans: Crops grown in greenhouses, if root nodules are found early in the crop, do not grow and eventually fail. Also in the post-sowing stage of the crop, the plants are stunted, the leaves turn yellow and the edges dry up. Eventually plant growth stops and fruit number and size are affected. When examining such a plant, its roots are found to have numerous small and large nodules. So, no matter how much fertilizer is given to the plant, the plant cannot take it. Realize that the plant appears to have root cancer. Eventually such a plant dries up. Fruits are few in number and small in size. Hence, the market price is low, if no pest control measures are taken in time, the crop fails completely and the farmer suffers a lot of financial loss.Due to the formation of such root knots, the root has numerous small and large holes through which disease-causing fungi and bacteria easily enter the root and the roots of the plant die due to rotting. Apart from roundworms, root-cutting worms, root-staining worms, kidney-shaped worms also infest greenhouse crops to a lesser extent. But the loss of roundworms can be seen very well with the naked eye. A loss of 10 billion US dollars has been recorded in America alone. In Taiwan, 35 to 40 percent of losses are recorded from worms. Thus, a study 52 found that worms reduce crop production by 10 to 12 percent. In our country, a loss of 2100 crore rupees has been cited in 24 crops as per the study in the All India Integrated Worm Scheme. If we include all the crops of our country, this loss is likely to be 12000 to 13000 crores per year.

3. How can Nematode controlled in Green house?

• Ans: Before sowing the crop for the first time, whatever the type of soil, it should be completely sterilized with fumigant drugs like Dazomet, Metham sodium etc. Worms, bacteria, insects, vermin etc. in the soil will be destroyed.Worm-infested trees should not be used for planting in greenhouses.Before sterilizing the soil, if using, apply manure to the soil so that the weeds are also destroyed.Organic fertilizers as much as possible like Neem seed kernel, castor cake etc.Use large quantities of ready-made good quality organic fertilizers such as poultry manure, sugar factory pressmud, vermi compost etc.Apply biopesticides like Trichoderma viridie, Pacillomyces Lilacinus, Pseudomonas fluorescens etc. at the rate of 2 to 3 kg per acre in furrows and later mixed with organic fertilizers in a ring around the plant. These biological insecticides and fungicides can also be dissolved in water in drips. Farmer friends, if the infestation of worms is high, then the effect of such biological drugs will be reduced, so it is beneficial to sterilize the soil with soil fumigant first.Now by grafting on worm resistant root stock, worm infestation can be prevented.Burning out the worm-infested roots along with the fibrous roots after the crop is completed in the greenhouse also reduces worm infestation to a great extent.Human traffic gate also enters the worm polyhouse to restrict its movement. The worms enter the polyhouse with the soil attached to the farm implements.Before constructing polyhouses to carry out worm analysis and not to construct polyhouses in that field if worms are present in the soil.

4. Nematode species found in India are?

Meloidogyne incognita and M. javanica are two subspecies are found in our country.

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