Marigold Farming and Cultivation

Marigold Farming and Cultivation Practices|Galgota Kheti

Marigold Farming and Cultivation Practices|Galgota Kheti
Complete Marigold Cultivation Guide
  1. Introduction:

  • The origin of Marigold is considered to be Central and South America, especially Mexico, where it came to our country after the sixteenth century.
  • Botanical Name: Tagetes erecta.
  • Marigold is nicknamed “Beauty” in other words.
  • Floriculture is a growing industry in World and India as on date. Marigold, Galardia, Rose etc. flowers are cultivated commercially in World and India.
  • Among the above crops, farmers are always interested in Marigold cultivation.
  • Cultivation of Marigolds has gained prominence in floriculture because marigolds can be cultivated in all types of soil and climate and in all three seasons of the year.
  • Marigold flowers is attractive in color and shape, flowers last for a long time and the flowering season is very long.
  • Since the cultivation method is very easy, the farmers are more attracted to the cultivation of this crop.
  • Marigold flowers are sold loosely or made into garlands. Marigold plants are used in landscape gardening also.
  • African marigold is more useful for planting in garden beds and borders, while French gorse plants are best planted in rockeries, sheds, hanging baskets or window boxes.
  • Marigold leaf extract is also useful in earache.
  • Some fruits and vegetables and flowers are damaged by worms during its growth and development stage. Chemical control of these worms is costly, these worms are attracted to the roots of Marigold, if the Marigold plants are uprooted and destroyed before the flowering stage, these worms can be controlled to some extent at all.
  1. Important Varieties:

  • There are two main types of Marigold flowers grown in India.
  • Both these types of Marigold plants are very diverse in terms of vegetative growth, color, shape, and size of their flowers.
      2.1         African Marigold:
  • Varieties of Marigold have been developed according to flower color, size and shape such as Giant Double, African Orange Lemon, Cracker Jack, Alaska, Fire Glove, Golden Jubilee, Sunset Giant Chrysanthemum, Charm, Honey Comb, Climax, Spun gold and Snow with white flowers.
  • Apart from this, I.A.R.I. Hybrid varieties named Pusa Orange and Pusa Basanti have been released by New Delhi. Both these varieties can be grown successfully in the climate of India.
  •         Pusa Basanti: This variety is developed from the hybridization of Golden Yellow and Sun Giant. The flowers of this variety have yellow color and carnation-type shape.
  •         Pusa Orange: This variety is developed from a cross of Cracker Jack and Golden Jubilee. The flowers of this variety are orange in color and shaped like carnation-type flowers with double petals. The flowers of the variety are very suitable for  making garlands.

Marigold Farming and Cultivation Practices|Galgota Kheti

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        2.2 French Marigold:
  • This type of marigold plant is 25 to 30 cm in height.
  • Its flowers are small in size but the plant bears a very large number of flowers.
  • The flowers are a mixture of yellow, orange, and red colors.
  • Flowers have good durability.
  • Among the main varieties of this type of Marigold such as Brown-Scout, Pygmy, Butterscotch, Rusty Red, Royal Bengal, Merry Jane flame, Royal Brocade, Red Brocade, and Petites have been developed.
  • Apart from this, interbreeding varieties such as Red and Gold, Nugget, Sobot, and Seven Star have been developed by crossbreeding African and French Marigolds and possessing the properties of both.
Marigold Farming and Cultivation Practices|Galgota Kheti
Marigold Flowers

  1. Method of propagation

  • Marigold is propagated from seed by transplanting. Apart from this, plants can also be prepared by sowing the tender cuttings of old plants in monsoon.
  • The number of flowers is less on plants prepared by this method. But the flowers are large in size and of excellent quality. So, if flowers are to be taken for a special exhibition or competition, this method can be raised.
  1. Seed rate :

  • One kg of seed is required for planting in one hectare.
  • Since the germination power of Marigold seeds is lost in a year or so, fresh seeds should be used every year.
  • Marigold can be planted in all three seasons of the year. But keeping in mind the time flowering, prepare the soil for raising plants.
  1. Climate and Weather:

  • Although both types of Marigold can be grown in the three-season climate of India, the mild winter weather and short sunny days are more suitable for flower production.
  • Shorter days and lower temperatures in winter result in less vegetative growth and higher production of flowers of excellent quality (color, shape and size).
  • Whereas in summer and monsoon, due to high temperatures and long days, disruption of the process of fertilization increases the vegetative growth of plants. As a result, the problem of plant drooping is increased and production is also lower with inferior flowers.

Marigold Farming and Cultivation Practices|Galgota Kheti

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  1. Spacing:

Time to get flowersTime to prepare the Seedlings Time of transplanting the Seedlings
  • 40 to 45 days old seedlings can be used for sowing. The distance of transplant depends on different varieties.
  • African Marigold can be sown at a distance of 30 x 30 cm and French marigold can be grown at a distance of 40 x 40
  1. Selection of Land and land preparation
  • Marigold can be grown well in all types of soil except very sandy or very heavy black soil.
  • But the African Marigold can be raised in heavy black soil while the French Marigold can be raised in light sandy soil.
  • Before transplanting crops in the field, the soil should be plowed once or twice by applying recommended organic and chemical fertilizers.
  • Remove the roots of the previous crop and level the soil using land leveler.
Marigold Farming and Cultivation Practices|Galgota Kheti
Marigold Farming
  1. Sowing/Planting Method:

  • 18-22 days old Marigold seedling is ready for transplanting from the nursery in the main field.
  1. Fertilizer Management

  • Apply 15 to 20 tons of well-decomposed Farm Yard manure (FYM) into the soil, while preparing the soil for good production and quality of Marigold.
  • Use 200 kg Nitrogen, 100 kg Phosphorus, and 100 kg Potash to meet the requirement of chemical fertilizers.
  • Half the amount of nitrogen and the entire amount of phosphorus and potash should be given while preparing the soil
  • While the rest of the nitrogen should be given after one month of transplanting seedlings in the field.

  1. Irrigation Management:

  • Vegetative growth and development of the Marigold plant is completed within 60 days from transplanting.
  • After 60 days apical buds develop in it. At the same time, the branches above the main stem begin to emerge and the flower begins to sit on it.
  • Water scarcity at any stage of growth and development directly affects vegetative and flower production, thus special care must be ensured that moisture is always maintained in the soil and there is no water scarcity at any stage.
  • Irrigate the field with very light water after transplanting. Be careful not to let the plant lie down while watering.
  • Then, irrigate the field as and when needed at various growth and development stages.

Marigold Farming and Cultivation Practices|Galgota Kheti

  1. Inter cultivation/Weed Management

  • Intercropping can be done during the early growing season of this crop but care should be taken that no damage to plants.
  • Intercropping is not advisable after the plants have grown well in the field, so after two or three irrigation, digging soil using kudali is to be done.
  • It is necessary to control weeds after transplanting the seedling in the marigold field at.
  • Need to use weedicides 3 to 4 times during the lifetime of the crop, for that herbicides like Alachlor 3 kg Or Chlorozuron 5 to 6 kg per hectare can be applied in the field for effective control of the major weeds in the field.
  1. Special Care:

(A) Support:
  • As African marigold has a tall growing nature, that ensures the plant does not fall on the ground
  • For this soil should be added to the trunk of the plant before planting and a thin stick should be pushed into the ground near the trunk of each plant and tied to a stick in two places with a loose string to support the plant so that quality of flowers can be prevented from deteriorating.
(B) Pinching of flower buds:
  • Generally, African marigold has a tall growing habit and lateral shoots are come out lately from it.
  • If the flower bud of Marigold is broken (40 to 45 days), new shoots will soon sprout from the side, resulting in smaller plants and more flowers.

Marigold Farming and Cultivation Practices|Galgota Kheti
Major Insects and Pests of Marigold Plant

  1. Crop Protection:

  2. Major Insects-pests damage Marigold :
  • Aphids: Aphids are tiny insects that always infected marigold plants that feed on plant sap, causing stunted growth and distorted leaves.
  • Aphids can be controlled by using a strong jet of water to wash them off the plants.
  • Use Insecticidal soap or neem oil for effective control of aphids.
  • Whiteflies:
  • Whiteflies are tiny, white insects that congregate on the undersides of leaves and suck plant juices.
  • They can cause yellowing of leaves and weaken the plant.
  • Yellow sticky traps can be used to monitor and trap adult whiteflies.
  • In severe cases, insecticidal soaps or oils may be necessary.
  • Spider Mites:
  • Spider mites are tiny pests that feed on the undersides of leaves, causing yellow stippling and webbing.
  • Regularly spraying the plants with a strong stream of water can help dislodge and control spider mites.
  • Introduce predatory mites, such as Phytoseiulus persimilis, which feed on spider mites.
  • Insecticidal soaps may also be effective in controlling severe infestations.
  • Slugs and Snails:
  • Slugs and snails are common garden pests that can damage marigold plants by feeding on leaves and flowers.
  • To control them, you can handpick them and remove them from the garden.
  • Creating barriers, such as copper tape or crushed eggshells, around the plants can help deter them.
  • You may also consider using organic slug and snail baits that are safe for use around edible plants.
  • Planting the seeds with a layer of pesticide does not cause diseases called seedling rot,Collar Rot etc.
  • Apart from this, Copper oxychloride, Malathion, and Monocrotophos should be sprayed as required.
Marigold Farming and Cultivation Practices|Galgota Kheti
Major Diseases of Marigold Plant

Diseases affect Marigold plants:
  • Powdery Mildew:
  • Powdery mildew is a fungal disease that appears as a white, powdery coating on the leaves, stems, and flowers of plants. It thrives in warm and humid conditions.
  • To prevent powdery mildew, ensure good air circulation around the plants and avoid overhead watering.
  • Fungicidal sprays may be used to control severe infestations.
  • Botrytis Blight (Gray Mold):
  • Botrytis blight is caused by the fungus Botrytis cinerea and affects marigold flowers.
  • It appears as brown spots on the petals, which eventually turn gray or tan.
  • Proper spacing between plants, adequate air circulation, and avoiding overhead watering can help prevent this disease.
  • Infected flowers should be removed and destroyed to prevent the spread of the fungus.
    Root Rot:
  • Root rot is typically caused by overwatering or poorly drained soil. It leads to the decay of the plant’s roots, resulting in stunted growth, wilting, and yellowing of leaves.
  • To prevent root rot, ensure well-draining soil and avoid excessive watering.
  • If root rot is already present, it is better to uproot all the infected plants from the field and buried in the soil, which can be useful in further spreading of disease.
    Fusarium Wilt:
  • Fusarium wilt is a soil-borne fungal disease that affects many plant species, including marigolds.
  • It causes wilting, yellowing, and death of the plant.
  • The fungus can persist in the soil for an extended period, so crop rotation and using disease-free soil are essential for prevention.
  • Aster Yellows:
  • Aster yellows is a phytoplasma disease that affects various plants, including marigolds
  • It is transmitted by leafhoppers and results in distorted growth, yellowing, and stunting of plants.
  • There is no cure for aster yellows, so infected plants should be removed and destroyed to prevent the spread of the disease.

Marigold Farming and Cultivation Practices|Galgota Kheti

Jeevamrut,Panchgavya, Bijamrut,Amrutpani and Sanjivak Preparation

  1. Hand Picking of flowers:

  • Hand-picking of flowering should be done early in the morning or at the evening.
  • Select flowers in full bloom for hand-picking.
  • Before hand-picking of flowers irrigate filed the previous day, so the flowers can be preserved for a long time.
  • Regular picking of flower increases production. Marigold flowers are often used to make garlands, so the flowers are plucked without the stem.

Marigold Farming and Cultivation Practices|Galgota Kheti

  1. Flower production:

  • One hectare Marigold crop yields 11 to 18 tons (15 to 25 million flowers) of African Marigolds
  • 8 to 12 tons (60 to 80 million) of French marigold.
  1. Market System:

  • After picking the flowers, the flowers are sorted according to their size, color and shape, and the flowers are packed in bamboo baskets or plastic bags and sent to the market.
  • If the flowers are to be sent to a distant market, the quality of the flowers can be maintained for a long time if the flowers are covered with a wet muslin cloth in the first basket and sent to the market.

  1. Special Information:

  • Marigold is a frequently pollinated (open cross-pollinated) crop and it is very difficult to obtain pure seed of the variety. But take special care to produce seeds from good quality flowers.
  • Seed production: 400 to 500 kg of seeds are produced per hectare
Marigold Farming and Cultivation Practices|Galgota Kheti
Marigold Plant in the Field

Marigold Farming and Cultivation Practices|Galgota Kheti

Importance of Biofertilizers

  1. Summary:

Marigold, a flowering plant native to Central and South America, has gained prominence in floriculture due to its easy cultivation method and attractive color and shape. It is used in landscape gardening, garden beds, borders, rockeries, sheds, hanging baskets, and window boxes. There are two main types of Marigold flowers grown in India: African Marigold and French Marigold.

Marigold can be planted in all three seasons, but it is important to prepare the soil for planting. Climate and weather are crucial for flower production, with mild winter weather and short sunny days being more suitable. However, during summer and monsoon, disruptions in fertilization can increase plant growth and lead to lower production. Spacing and planting methods for Marigold include sowing at a distance of 30 x 30 cm for African Marigold and 40 x 40 cm for French Marigold.

Irrigation management is essential for successful growth and development of Marigold plants. Water scarcity at any stage directly affects vegetative and flower production, so special care must be taken to ensure moisture is maintained in the soil.

It is essential to control weeds and pests in a marigold field after transplanting seedlings. Using herbicides like Alachlor 3 kg or Chlorozuron 5 to 6 kg per hectare can effectively control major weeds. Main pests to control marigold plants include aphids, whiteflies, spider mites, slugs, snails, and Fusarium wilt. Diseases that affect marigold plants include powdery mildew, Botrytis blight, root rot, Fusarium wilt, and aster yellows.

One hectare of marigold yields 11 to 18 tons of African marigolds and 8 to 12 tons of French marigold.

Marigold Farming and Cultivation Practices|Galgota Kheti

19. FAQs

1. How much profit does a marigold make per acre?

Ans: Aproximately Rs. 60,000-70000 per acre can be earned from one acre marigold farming.

2. Is marigold a cash crop?

Ans: Yes, marigold is a cash crop as you get the money on the spot on its sale in the market.

3. What is the price of marigold flower per kg in India?

Ans: Aproximately Rs.150-160 per kg

4. What is the botanical name of Marigold?

Ans: Tagetes erecta

5. Where is marigold mostly found?

Ans: Marigold is cultivated in all the country of the world However Central and South America, especially Mexico is considered as its origin at all.

6. What is the price of Marigold seed in the market?

Ans: The price of Marigold seed is Rs.1200-1450 per kg of seed in the market.

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