Mango Farming

Name of FruitMango
Botanical NameMangifera indica
FamilyAnacardiaceae
GenusMangifera
KingdomPlantae

Major Mango varieties found in India are:

Alphanso,Kesar,Dasheri,Himsagar,
Chausa,Badami,Safeda,Bombay Green,
Langra,Totapuri,Neelam,Raspuri,
Malgoa,Laxmanbhog,Amprapali,Imam Pasand,
Fazli,Mallika,Gulab Khaas,Vanraj etc

Major Mango varieties found in Rest World are:

Mango VarietyCountry
HoneyMexico, Brazil, Peru, and Ecuador
FrancisHaiti and Ecuador
HadenMexico, Peru, and Ecuador
KentMexico, Peru, and Ecuador
Tommy AtkinsBrazil, Mexico, Guatemala, and Ecuador
GrahamTrinidad
IrwinJapan, Central America, Taiwan, and Australia
Valencia PrideCalifornia and Florida-USA
GlennUSA
Sein Ta LoneMyanmar
Anwar RatolNorthern India, Nepal, and Pakistan
MiyazakiJapan
CarabaoManila or Philippine
Pico/Piko or PaderoPhilippines
Julie Jamaica

Land:

Mango can be cultivated in different types of soil. Sandy loam, well-drained soil up to two meters deep, and a low water table are suitable.

Weather:

Mango can be cultivated in hot and temperate regions. Rain from June to September and then dry weather without moisture till February is very suitable/beneficial during flowering and fruit set in mango.

Mango Farming
Different varieties of Mango Fruits

Mango Farming

VARIETIES OF MANGO:

(1) Alfonso:

The tree becomes medium to large, vigorous, and upright. Fruits irregularly as the tree matures. Fruits are medium in size, heart-shaped, and weigh 250 to 300 grams on average. The fruit turns yellow when ripe and orange color is also seen in the upper part. It is considered an excellent variety for cutting and eating.

(2) Kesar-Junagadh:

This variety has become very popular in Gujarat due to its regularity in fruiting and its ability to produce FRUITS in the third to fourth year after planting. The tree is medium spreading and medium vigorous. Fruits are oval in shape and weigh 250 to 300 grams. Mangoes are saffron in color when ripe and have a relatively purple tinge on their shoulders. This variety of mangoes is good for eating after cutting and sucking. And the shelf life of the fruit is relatively good. Fresh mangoes and various products are exported abroad. The Kesar mangoes of the Junagadh and Talala –Gujarat areas are very famous.

(3) Rajapuri:

The tree is vigorous, medium to large in size, early maturing and regular fruiting variety. Fruits are oblong in appearance, large weighing 550 to 600 grams. Mango peel is thick and slightly rough which turns yellow when ripe. The pulp of the fruit is slightly less sweet and hard. Fruit quality and storage capacity are moderate. This variety is especially preferred for pickles. It is also used for juice.

(4) Dussehra:

At present, it is sown in some areas of Gujarat. The trees are small to medium-sized, umbrella-shaped and less vigorous. It is the main commercially cultivated variety of North India. Fruit is regular and abundant, and bears oval shape. Fruits weighing 150 grams. The pulp of the fruit is hard, fibrous and very sweet.

(5) Langro:

It is grown in some areas of Gujarat. The tree is medium, tall, dome-shaped and irregular in fruiting. The fruit is ready in the month of June. The fruit is oval, weighing 250 to 300 grams, which turns gray to light yellow when ripe. The pulp of the fruit is very sweet and less hard.

(6) Amrutang:

It is a variety discovered at Anand-Gujarat, India. The fruits are medium in size, the pulp is very good in taste and is an excellent variety for eating by cutting.

Mango Farming

Mango Farming
Different varieties of Mango Fruits

HYBRID VARIETIES OF MANGO:

(a) Three hybrid varieties have been released from Pariya Center of Gujarat Agricultural University, Now, Navsari Agriculture University, Gujarat.

(1) Nilfanso :

Nilfanso is developed using Neelam as the mother and Alfonso as the father. The tree is medium growing and bears fruits almost regularly. Fruits are in clusters of three to four. The average weight of the fruit is about 200 grams. Ripe mangoes are pale yellow in color. The pulp of the fruit is sweet without fiber and resembles Alphanso in taste. The fruits of Nilfanso have good staying power.

(2) Nileshan:

This variety is prepared using Neelam as the mother plant and Banesha as parent plant. The growth of the tree is moderate. The average size of the fruit is 400 to 500 grams. The flesh of the fruit is densely fibrous and slightly sweet. This variety is late ripening.

(3) Nileswari:

This variety is prepared using Neelam as the mother plant and Dusheri as the parent plant. The tree is small in size and bears fruits regularly. Mangoes ripen very late. The pulp of the fruit is sweet and tasty without fiber.

Mango Farming

Mango Farming
Different varieties of Mango Fruits

(b) Two varieties Mallika and Amrapali have been released from Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi,India.

Mallika: Tree is medium sized and bears fruit regularly. The fruit ripens late. The pulp of the fruit is hard, fibrous and sweet.

Amrapali: Tree is small to medium sized. The fruit ripens late. But the yield/product is higher.

Mango Farming
Different varieties of Mango Fruits

Method of propagation:

Mango can be propagated by cuttings as well as by grafting. As the grafted tree retains the properties of the mother plant, now new plant is prepared in the nursery by grafting only. In rain-fed areas, mango trees can be made easily and smoothly by planting the kernel on the spot and making new grafts on it.

Planting distance:

In fertile and well-drained soils, where there is a vigorous variety like Rajapuri, it is imperative to plant mango at a suitable distance of 10 × 10 meters

Where the soil is fertile, water scarcity and the weather is dry less vigorous varieties like Dussehri, and Amrapali are to be sown, they can be planted in a narrower space than 10 meters × 10 meters. A higher number of grafts per unit area can be planted at a suitable spacing of 7×7 m or 9 x 6 m, to obtain higher mango production.

Pit preparation

Prepare 90 x 90 x 90 cm pit during hot summer for planting mango in monsoon. Allow the soil from the pit to cool for 15-20 days, then fill the pit with 20 to 25 kg of Farm Yard Manure and 500 g of superphosphate and 500 g of Mutate of potash mixed with the soil in the lower half of the pit. The upper 30 cm of the pit can be filled with soil.

Mango Farming

Mango Farming
Mango Diseases
Planting:

Only certified grafts should be used for mango planting. Such cuttings can be obtained from the Horticulture Department nursery, Agricultural University nursery or Government approved private nursery. Where drinking facilities are available it can be planted anytime throughout the year. But the best results if planted at the beginning of the monsoon under cloud cover and light drizzle.

While planting, break the soil of the grafts and keep the joint of the graft 10 cm from the ground along with the lump of soil. As the plant is tall, press the soil around it properly and tie the grafts with a string or a cloth strip by giving a strong support of bamboo or wood. After one and a half months after planting, cut off the upper part of the plant from the upper part of the joint. If a new branch emerges from the top of the graft and the joint the cord on the joint should be carefully cut and removed.

Mango Farming

Mango Farming
Mango Germinating from Kernel

Nursery Management:

Nursery Management can be divided into two parts:
(a) Care of infertile grafts:

It takes four to five years to bear fruit after planting. During this time, care should be given, as the vegetative growth of the grafts increases.

After the end of the monsoon, the newly planted cuttings should be mulched and given at least 30 to 40 liters of water every three to six days according to the soil and season in a ring of one-meter width. As the grafts grow and spread, ring size and water content should be increased. Cover the trench with grass litter or tree leaves. The grafts should be firmly supported until they can stand upright on their trunks. Do not allow branches to sprout above the main trunk of the plant.

Mango Farming

Mango Farming
Mango Insect and Pests

(b) Grooming of fruit trees:

More production of good quality fruits can be obtained if MANGO is cultivated using scientific methods.

(1) Tillage/Land preparation:

The first ploughing should be done before the onset of the monsoon, so that more and more water of the rain falls into the soil, after the second ploughing in the monsoon, the weeds are controlled and the soil cover formed on the surface of the soil helps in the circulation of water. A third tillage in November-December is helpful in controlling Miley bug infestation.

Mango Farming

Mango Farming
Mango Insect and Pests
(2) Fertilizer Management:

Fertilize the grafted tree as per below.

Farm Yard Manure, half nitrogen fertilizer and full phosphorus and potash fertilizers should be given in June before the onset of monsoon. The remaining half installment of nitrogen fertilizer should be given in the month of February. Where there is no irrigation facility, all fertilizers should be applied in May-June before monsoon rains. Make a deep round pit of 30 to 35 cm wide below the canopy of the tree and 20 to 30 cm deep add fertilizer to it, fill the pit with soil.

Amount of Manure and chemical fertilizers per tree (kg)

At yearCompostAmmoniaSuper PhosphateMurate of Potash
First100.3750.10.125
Second200.750.20.25
Third301.1250.30.375
Fourth401.50.40.5

If manure is not available, some part of the amount of manure to be given can be given in the form of Castor cake. (Through 1 kg of Castor, about 5-6 kg of Farm Yard manure is understood.)

Mango Farming
Mango Plant with leaf Canopy
(3) Irrigation Management:

A fruiting mango crop requires a dry period of 2-3 months before flowering. At the end of the monsoon, give two water at an interval of 20 to 25 days after the fruits are as big as peas. Watering at this stage will prevent fruit drop, increase fruit size and weight and improve quality.

(4) Inter cropping:

In vacant land, short-term vegetables, groundnut and pulses can be grown initially for 5-7 years.

Mango Farming

Mango Farming
Mango Diseases

Insects-Pest Management:

Rather than taking crop protection measures after heavy pest infestation, measures should be taken to prevent or reduce pest infestation throughout the year, which can reduce economic losses to farmers. The adult maggots of the BARK BORER in the bark cracks of the trunk and thick branches when there are no blooms and buds on the mango.During May and January, when new shoots emerge, they reach the leaves from the trunk and lay eggs in clusters. Damages plant by sucking juice from leaves, bunches and flowers. For Bark borer control, two sprays of Carbaryl 50% wettable powder at an interval of 10 days before the emergence of new clusters in November and early May can reduce the infestation.

By spraying insecticides like phosphamidon 40 EC, methyl o-demeton 25 EC and Monocrotophos 36 EC can be effectively controlled bark borer. In case there is heavy infestation of these pests spray Imidacloprid 5 ml mixing with 10 liters of water.

FRUIT FLY infestation is observed on ripe fruits from May to July. For its control, methyl eugenol (a chemical present in basil leaves that attracts male fruit flies) can be used to kill male fruit flies by raising basil plants in nursery. Mix methyl eugenol and Fenthion insecticide in the trap in ratio of 1:1 and place 4 to 5 traps per hectare. Apart from this, fruit fly maggots are found in half-ripe and rotten fruits lying on the ground. Which is collected and buried in the ground or burned to destroy the adults/worms.

THE MANGO STEM-EATING CATERPILLAR eats the inner part of the tender branches and flower arrangement, causing the tender branch to dry up. To control this pest, the infested plant should be destroyed along with the caterpillars. To control this pest, spray drugs like Endolphan, Monocrotophos, Quinalphos etc.

The larvae and pupae of MANGO MEALY BUGS damage leaves, buds and fruit by sucking the juice. Female MEALY BUG as deep as 80 to 150 mm went into the ground and lay eggs during March to May. Which remains in a dormant state and is served during the month of November to January. During this time, Methyl Parathion 2% at the rate of 250 grams per tree is applied to the soil around the tree, killing the hatchlings. Apart from this, 25-30 cm of polyethylene seat around the trunk of the tree in the month of November. By placing a wide band around the trunk and covering the top and bottom edges with soil, the infant of mealy bug can be prevented from climbing the tree.

Mango Farming
Mango Diseases

DISEASES

POWDERY MILDEW causes a white powdery coating on mango blossoms, which later turns brown. The blooms dry up and fall off before pollination takes place. The fungus grows near the flower spike. As a result, the fruit falls off. To control this disease, spray with wettable sulphur, dinocap, tridemorph etc.

A disease called ANTHRACNOSE causes irregular small spots on tender new leaves. And the edge of the leaf turns brown or black and dries up. Spots are dark brown on ripe leaves. The middle part of which falls right. And the bud dries up from the top.The bloom dries up and falls off. Due to the effect of the disease, the leaf becomes dry and black. So the disease is called ‘black’.To control this disease, prune and burn the diseased dry branches after picking mangoes. Spraying of Bodomix 1 %, copper oxychloride, and carbendazim can be also effective in the control of this disease on mango trees.

LORANTHUS is a parasitic plant growing on the mango tree branches, which derives nourishment from mangoes. On the LORANTHUS sweet fruits like small ber come, birds eat on this and spreads it through beak and excreta. The remedy for this is to cut the branch along with the knot and destroy it.

IMPORTANT QUESTIONS OF NURSERY MANAGEMENT AND THEIR REMEDIES

IRREGULAR FRUITING:

Irregular fruiting behavior that depends on the genetic characteristics of the variety. However, care should be taken for regular fertilizing, watering, crop protection and other maintenance in such varieties. The year in which there is more flowering and fruiting has a negative effect on fruit development and vegetative growth of the tree. It may come full in the next year very little. Therefore, in the year when there are more flowers, from March to May, the new shoots will sprout and develop sufficiently, spraying with a solution of one gram of GIBBERELLIC ACID + 2 KG OF UREA in 100 liters of water should be done at the end of April and another spraying at the end of May.

Mango Farming

Mango Farming
Mango Fruit Picking

FRUIT DROPPING:

Fruit variety, weather, watering, nutrition and diseases and pests etc. are responsible for the process of fruit shedding. The following measures should be taken to prevent fruit drop.

The first time when the mango is like a pea and the second time when the mango is like a small marble spray 200 to 250 mg naphthalene acetic acid + 200 g urea in 10 liters of water on the mango. Application of nitrogenous fertilizers like urea, ammonium sulphate etc. also helps in fruit set.

In order to prevent the large fruits from falling due to the winds, build a high fence of trees in the direction of the wind in the field and reduce the height by pruning the trees in the right way.

SPONGY TISSUE IN FRUIT:

In the month of May, the ground is especially hot due to the intense heat of the sun. The heat radiated from the soil penetrates into the fruit and damages the pulp of the fruit. Damaged part does not ripen properly. What we know as kapasi. These fruits are whitish yellow in appearance and sour in taste.

As a remedy for this, a cover of naturally grown green grass on the ground or spreading of dry paddy straw or leaf mulch in the empty space between the trees in April-May does not overcrowd the soil, thereby reducing cotton damage to the fruits on the tree.

FRUIT PICKING:

Picking the fruit according to the type of ripeness.

Varieties like Pyri and Sundari are ready in the last week of April to first week of May,

Rajapuri, Afus Kesar in the second to fourth week of May,

Hybrid varieties like Vashibdami, Dadmio, Nilfanso, Amrapali, Mallika in the month of June,

Neelam, Totapuri, Ashadio in the month of July-August.

Mango is a seasonal fruit and can be ripened after harvesting. Fruits are sold quickly and at a good price if they are shipped in paper and cardboard boxes. Use three holes each of 55 (Length) 30 (Width) (Height) cm in diameter.

Mango Farming
Mango Fruit Ripening and Storage

STORAGE OF MANGOES:

Ripe mangoes can be stored at room temperature for 4 to 10 days. To preserve the mangoes for a long time, chemical treatment and storage for a few days in the cold storage can be done. Fruits do not ripen properly after being removed from the cold storage. Store mangoes in a warm place at 18° to 22°C. The relative humidity should be between 60 to 85 percent. The storage period can be extended by 3-5 days with GIBBERELLIC ACID, BAVISTIN OR KINETIN.

Mango Farming

FRUIT RIPENING:

25-30°C is the best temperature for mangoes ripening. If such conditions are created, the quality of the fruit is always excellent. First paddy straw is spread on the ground, then mangoes and 4 layers of straw are placed on it, afterward an old cloth mat is placed on it and the mangoes are allowed to ripen in the straw for 4-6 days. By doing this, the ripe mango gets more sweetness. In the chemical reaction, fruit ripening can be accelerated by immersing the fruit in 1000 ppm of ETHEPHON before ripening.

Yield:

A mature tree produces an average of 80 to 100 kg of mangoes. A properly spread tree under good care yields more than 200 kg of mangoes. Nursery produces 10 to 15 tons of mangoes per hectare.

Summary:

Mango, a fruit of the Anacardiaceae family, is cultivated in hot and temperate regions. Major varieties found in India include Alpenso, Kesar, Dasheri, Humsagar, Chausa, Badami, Safeda, Bombay Green, Langra, Totapuri, Neelam, Raspuri, Malgoa, Laxmanbhog, Amprapali, Imam Pasand, Fazli, Mallika, Gulab Khaas, and Vanraj. Mango can be cultivated in various types of soil, such as sandy, loamy loam, well-drained up to two meters deep, and low water table. Mango can be propagated by cuttings or grafting. In rain-fed areas, mango trees can be made easily and smoothly by planting the kernel/ghuteli on the spot and making new grafts on it. Planting distance is 10 × 10 meters in fertile and well-drained soils, and in areas with water scarcity or dry weather, less vigorous varieties like Dussehri and Amrapali can be sown in narrower spaces.

Mango planting should be done using certified grafts, obtained from a nursery or government-approved private nursery. The best results are achieved during monsoons, with best results when planted under cloud cover and light drizzle. Care of infertile grafts is crucial, and after the monsoon, mulching and watering the cuttings are essential. Grooming of fruit trees is crucial for producing good quality fruits. Tillage and land preparation are essential, with the first ploughing done before the onset of monsoon to control weeds and soil cover. Fertilizers should be given to the grafted trees, with a mix of compost, ammonia, super phosphate, and murate of potash. Irrigation is crucial for fruiting mango crops, and intercropping can be done for 5-7 years in vacant land. Pest management measures can reduce economic losses for farmers. Bark borer, fruit fly infestation, and caterpillar infestations can be controlled through insecticides and sprays. Mango stem-eating caterpillars and larvae and pupae can be controlled by spraying Endolphan, Monocrotophos, and Quinalphos. Diseases like poisony mildew and Andrachnoe can be controlled by pruning and burning diseased dry branches after picking.

Nursery management is crucial for maintaining healthy mangoes. Regular fruiting behavior depends on the variety’s genetic characteristics, and proper fertilization, watering, and crop protection are essential. To prevent fruit drop, spray naphthalene acetic acid and urea in water, apply nitrogenous fertilizers, and build high fences. To prevent kapasi, cover the ground with green grass or spread paddy straw or leaf mulch. Harvest mangoes according to ripeness, and store them at room temperature or cold storage. Proper ripening conditions, such as 25-30°C, can improve the quality of the fruit. A mature tree produces 80 to 100 kg of mangoes, with a properly spread tree yielding over 200 kg per hectare.

Mango Farming
Edible Mango Pulp

 FAQs:

1. How much mango per hectare?

Ans. Mango yield is 10-15 tonnes per hectare.

2. How long does it take to grow a mango?

Mango start producing fruits after 05-06 years onwards.

3. Which mango grows fastest?

Glen Mango Variety.

4. Which Indian mango is best?

4. Which Indian mango is best? Alphanso, Kesar, Dasheri, Himsagar, Chausa, Badami,Safeda,Bombay Green, Langra, Totapuri, Neelam,Raspuri, Malgoa, Laxmanbhog, Amprapali, Imam Pasand, Fazli,Mallika, Gulab Khaas,Vanraj etc

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