How to Increase Pulse Production in India and World?

How to Increase Pulse Production in India and World?

How to Increase Pulse Production in India and World?

Introduction

India is a country with geographical diversity. India has a total of 15 agro-climatic Zones considering soil, rainfall, temperature, and groundwater in which more than 100 crops are grown in different seasons.

Agriculture plays an important role in the economy of India and the rest world. About 60% of people in the country are engaged in agriculture and allied sectors, which accounted for 17.5% of the country’s total growth in the year 2022-23.

Considering the population of the World and Our country, the effects of climate change on agriculture, rain-fed/Dry land agriculture, etc., it is necessary to modernize the agricultural sector by adopting a scientific approach to increase production and productivity. As any sector of the country is directly or indirectly related to the agriculture sector, the prosperity of the agriculture sector is very essential.

Agricultural sector development is essential to address the country’s problems such as malnutrition, hunger, and poverty. The contribution of pulse crops in the agricultural sector is very important for the world.

How to Increase Pulse Production in India and World?

How to Increase Pulse Production in India and World?

IMPORTANCE OF PULSES:

  • Legumes contain two to three times more protein than cereals.
  • This protein is cheaper in cost and easier to digest than non-vegetarian protein. Apart from this, it also contains a sufficient amount of elements like calcium, iron, zinc, copper and molybdenum etc.
  • Legumes are the main source of protein and minerals. These crops absorb/take up nitrogen from the air through rhizomes and add to the soil, and also add organic matter to the soil, due to their characteristic leaf fall, at the maturity stage.
  • Thus leguminous crops improve soil fertility and physical condition, as well as reduce pollution through less use of chemical fertilizers.

PRODUCTION OF PULSES:

  • Around 94 million hectares of pulses are cultivated in the world. Out of which 92 million tonnes production and productivity is 995 kg/ha (Source-Google.com).
  • India ranks first in the world in terms of cultivated area, production, consumption, and biological diversity of pulse crops.
  • Since the consumption of pulse crops in India is more than the production, so pulses have to be imported in thousands of tonnes every year.
  • It is assumed that the requirement of pulse crops in India by the year 2025 could be 24 million tonnes.
  • In our country, the amount of imports can be reduced by reducing losses during the storage of pulses. Out of the total quantity of pulses, 75% pulses used as dal, 15% as whole and 10% used as seeds (Source-Google.com).
  • During the year 2020-21, total cultivated area under pulse crop was 28 million hectares and 24 million tonnes of production was recorded in India. ha (Source-Google.com).
  • Average recorded production per hectare is 823 kg/ha. (Source-Google.com).
  • Major pulses crops grown in India and the world are Pigeon pea, Mung bean, chickpea, Pea, etc
  • In some parts of the world and India agriculture mainly depends on rainfall. Apart from this, Cluster beans and Math are important pulse crops grown in dry areas, while in irrigated areas, mung bean, Black Gram, chickpea and cluster bean can be grown in summer and the annual production of the country can be increased.

How to Increase Pulse Production in India and World?

How to Increase Pulse Production in India and World?

AVAILABILITY OF PULSES:

  • According to the criteria of the World Health Organization, the daily requirement of pulses per person is 104 grams, against which we take only 28 grams of pulses in our daily diet. (Source-Google.com).
  • Thus, keeping in mind all the above points, pulse crops are very important for health, but due to high population and low productivity, the daily requirement of pulses is not fulfilled for all people.
  • Hence, there is an urgent need to increase the production and productivity of pulse crops, which can provide daily protein to the people and also improve health.

How to Increase Pulse Production in India and World?

MAIN REASONS FOR LOWER PRODUCTION OF PULSES:

  • Indian agriculture is largely rain-fed and thus pulses in particular are grown only in rainfed areas.
  • As compared to other crops, the availability of drought-resistant and pest-resistant varieties in pulses is very less, so farmers don’t have much choice among different pulses.
  • Lack of information about research-based innovative production technologies of pulse crops is a major factor, leading to low productivity.
  • Due to excessive waterlogging during monsoons, crop wilting is also reduces pulses production.
  • Farmers’ land is decreasing day by day, so expansion in cultivation area is not possible. Against which the continuous increase in population has created tremendous pressure on the land.
  • In the year 2015-16 the average land holding of farmers was recorded @ 1.15 hectares but according to the agricultural census of 2015-16 it was recorded as 1.08 hectares and more than 85% of the farmers in our country have less than 2 hectares of land. Hence less land is available for sowing different crops.
  • Small farmers are not able to adopt the latest implements to facilitate agricultural work as they are expensive.

KEY POINTS IN INCREASING THE PRODUCTION OF PULSES:

Crop Selection:

  • In general, pulse crops can be rotated throughout the year, but before selecting a new crop, tested it on a small scale in some areas should be done on a large scale, only after checking whether the crop is suitable for the environment.

Selection of quality seeds:

  • Higher yields can be obtained from seeds of new varieties.
  • High-quality seeds and promising varieties available to farmers in a sufficient and timely manner can increase production.
  • The replacement rate has increased to 22.5% through various government programs such as Integrated Scheme, Pulses National Food Security Mission, (NFSM), and Seed Village Programme. Still, if this rate is brought to 22.5 to 40%, the production can be significantly increased.

How to Increase Pulse Production in India and World?

How to Increase Pulse Production in India and World?

Seed treatment:

  • To protect the crop from soil and seed-borne diseases and to maintain an adequate number of plants per unit area, seed treatment is done using Thiram or Carbendazim fungicide 3 g per kg of seeds.
  • Seed treatment using Imidacloprid 7 ml per kg of seed to protect the seeds from sucking pests in the early stage.
  • Seeds should be coated with RHIZOBIUM CULTURE (10 ml of liquid culture per kg seed) and dried in the shade.
  • After FUNGICIDE AND INSECTICIDE treatment, if the seed is treated with RHIZOBIUM CULTURE, use a double quantity of culture.

SOWING TIME AND SPACING:

  • Crop productivity depends on crop variety and other factors of production.
  • Sowing crops as per recommended sowing time and seed rate.
  • Exact sowing time and seeds is determined based on research by Agricultural University in the state/area/Agro Climatic Zones.

LAND MECHANIZATION:

  • Mechanization can reduce farming costs and increase the production of crops with minimum cost.
  • Mechanization operations such as deep tillage, row sowing, weeding, and harvesting in pulses reduce costs and also increase water and fertilizer efficiency of the soil.

How to Increase Pulse Production in India and World?

INTERCROP SYSTEM:

  • Weeds can be controlled by inter /mixed cropping. Legumes cover the soil with its vegetative growth.
  • Generally, short-duration pulse crops like pigeon pea, mung, black gram and chick pea are intercropped between cereal crops like millet and maize etc.
  • Between two harvests of Chick pea, 1 to 3 harvests of pulses or cereal crops are to be taken.

How to Increase Pulse Production in India and World?

INTEGRATED NUTRIENT MANAGEMENT:

  • In leguminous crops, seed treatment/coating with RHIZOBIUM BACTERIUM CULTURE can fix up to 80-180 kg/ha of nitrogen from the air to the soil through root nodules, thereby increasing crop production and soil fertility.
  • The availability of phosphorus is increased by the addition of microbes to the soil, which are required to convert phosphorus in the soil into available form.
  • The direct benefit of which can be a reduction in the cost of chemical fertilizers. The use of microbial fertilizers, such as phosphorus solubilizing culture can save about 50-100 kg/ha of phosphorus-containing chemical fertilizers.
  • Application of sulfurous fertilizers in leguminous plants increases grain quality and production also. So if SSP is used instead of DAP for phosphorus supplementation in base fertilizer.
  • If the crop is dry area, the crop production can be increased by spraying 2% urea (200 gms / 10 liters of water) or 19:19:19 fertilizer dissolved in 70 gms per 15 liters of water and applied first at flowering stage and second spraying after 15 days.

How to Increase Pulse Production in India and World?

 IRRIGATION SYSTEM

  • Every plant needs moisture not water to grow. By providing irrigation in dry conditions, crop production increases significantly.
  • Legumes have three critical water requirements stages i.e. budding and flowering and pod filling/development stage.
  • The use of drip irrigation can increases production as well as grain quality and save water also.
  • Adopt an intercropping approach.
  • Sow early maturing varieties (maturing in 150 days or less).

WEED CONTROL:

  • Weeds cause major losses in leguminous crops. Short-duration crops should be weed-free for the first 30 days and long-duration crops for the first 60 days.
  • Pre- and post-emergence weedicides like Pendimethalin and Glyphosate, etc available in the market for its effectiveness control.

How to Increase Pulse Production in India and World?

CROP ROTATION:

  • In the modern era, the area for cultivation is decreasing over time, keeping in mind that the dimension of scientific intensive cultivation needs to be given priority.
  • In intensive cropping systems, proper crop rotation is important to improve soil fertility and efficient use of fertilizers. If pulses and cereals are taken as intercrops, there is no need for crop rotation even in the second year.
  • Where sufficient irrigation water is available sow winter pigeon pea after paddy harvesting.
  • Pigeon peas as mixed crop or medium late maturing pigeon pea, then summer millet can be rotate alternatively.
  • Wheat can be taken in the winter season after brinjal + pigeon pea (summer).
  • There are ample possibilities of taking early maturing pigeon pea, winter wheat followed by mung or pearl millet in summer.
  • Maize-winter mung-winter gram or wheat and summer mung can be taken in the monsoon season.

INTEGRATED DISEASE / PEST CONTROL SYSTEM:

  • Integrated pest and disease control systems are used to reduce farming costs.
  • Using 40 pheromone traps per hectare can be used for effective control of green caterpillar in the field.
  • For control of sucking pests like Aphid, mite, spray crop with 5% solution of Neem seed kernel at 50% flowering stage, followed by another 2 to 3 sprays at 15 days interval.
  • Spray NPV 250 LE hectare for caterpillar control.
  • Predatory insects like chrysopa eat caterpillar eggs and caterpillars.

How to Increase Pulse Production in India and World?

How to Increase Pulse Production in India and World?

POST-HARVEST MAINTENANCE:

  • According to the estimates of 2022, 8.50 percent of mung, 8.0 percent of black gram, 6.06 percent of pigeon pea, 8.63 percent of gram and 10.26 percent of soybean have been lost during harvesting in our country.
  • If the pulses are not sun-dried or brought up to 8 to 10 percent moisture and packed, moisture inside it will cause fungal damage.
  • Several guidelines have been laid out by different researchers to prevent storage damage in pulse crops, which are as follows.
  • Harvest pulses crops at full maturity stage.
  • Keeping the shed free from rodents.
  • Dry the pulses to a suitable moisture content (less than 8 percent) clean, cool and then bag them properly. Before storage pulses should be uniformly dried in the heat of the sun and brought to 8 to 10 percent moisture, then stored only after cooling for 6-8 hours.
  • Store the grain free from moisture, heat, pests, garbage etc. in a waterproof godown using wooden box HDPE molded pallets and 700 gauge polythene sheet, stacked in bags in the center of the godown 1 ft away from the wall.
  • Fix/arrange the bags of pulses alternately horizontally (left) and vertically (right) on a suitable pallet in such a way that there are maximum 8-10 bags.
  • Keep the height of the bags 4 to 5 feet below the roof.
  • Periodically aeration should be provided in the godown. Swap bags and arrange again.
  • Transport vehicles such as bullock carts, trucks, trolleys, etc must be clean and pest free.
  • To clean insect webs/residues, excreta, etc. of previous year’s stored goods.
  • Keep new-old pulses bags separately. Use new bags for new grains and if old bags are to be used, heat both sides in sunlight.
  • Pulses should be stored in a suitable container in a well-ventilated and moisture-free place.
  • It should be stored in airtight containers as far as possible.
  • The walls inside the barn were washed with lime mixed with alum powder.
  • Small-scale storage of gram, black gram, peas, etc. in 1 to 3-ton capacity barrels of 24, 26 and 28-gauge mild steel or galvanized sheet can be done.
  • Chemical fumigants should not be used after a pest infestation except under the direct supervision of an expert, as the phosphine gas produced by aluminum phosphide is very dangerous to humans.
  • The pulses are mostly packed in LDPE, pp, BOPP bags, cloth bags, or poly pouches.
  • It has been found that by mixing 2 percent of neem leaf or lemon nut powder with mung bean, chickpea, chickpea, pea, it can protect against pests for 9 months.
  • Applying 2 to 5 ml of neem oil per kilogram also inhibits the activity of mites.
  • It is also beneficial to mix castor oil with pulses and then store.
  • Pulses are treated with coconut, Mustard, groundnut or sesame oil at the rate of 1 kg for every 100 kg, for up to 6 months can save the grain from infestation of pests. Mung, Black gram, pigeon pea, chickpeas, etc are not rotted after being stored, and dal also does not get rotten after being treated with edible oil.

How to Increase Pulse Production in India and World?

How to Increase Pulse Production in India and World?

Summary:

India, a country with geographical diversity and 15 agro-climatic zones, has a significant agricultural sector, accounting for 17.5% of the country’s total growth in 2022-23. The country’s agricultural sector is crucial for addressing issues such as malnutrition, hunger, and poverty. Pulses, which contain two to three times more protein than cereals, are a cost-effective and easy-to-digest protein source.

They also contain essential elements like calcium, iron, zinc, copper, and molybdenum. India ranks first in terms of cultivated area, production, consumption, and biological diversity of pulse crops. The demand for pulse crops in India is estimated to be 24 million tonnes by 2025. To reduce imports, 75% of pulses, 15% of whole beans, and 10% of seeds are used.

The major pulse crops grown in India and the world are Pigeon pea, Mung bean, chickpea, Pea, and others. In irrigated areas, mung bean, Black Gram, chickpea, and cluster bean can be grown in summer, increasing annual production.

How to Increase Pulse Production in India and World?

The World Health Organization’s daily requirement for pulses is 104 grams, but due to high population and low productivity, pulses are not consumed by all people. To increase pulse production and productivity, key points include crop selection, seed selection, seed treatment, sowing time and spacing, and land management. By adopting scientific approaches and addressing the challenges posed by climate change, India can improve its agricultural sector and contribute to global health.

The intercropping system in leguminous crops can control weeds and increase crop production and soil fertility. Short-duration pulse crops like pigeon pea, mung, black gram, and chick pea are intercropped between cereal crops like millet and maize. The use of microbial fertilizers, such as phosphorus solubilizing culture, can reduce the cost of chemical fertilizers.

Drip irrigation can increase crop production and grain quality in dry conditions. Weed control is crucial in leguminous crops, with short-duration crops being weed-free for the first 30 days and long-duration crops for the first 60 days. Pre- and post-emergence weedicides like Pendimethalin and Glyphosate are available for effectiveness control.

 Proper crop rotation is important for improving soil fertility and efficient use of fertilizers. Integrated pest and disease control systems are used to reduce farming costs. For effective control of green caterpillars, use 40 pheromone traps per hectare and spray NPV 250 LE hectare for caterpillar control.

Post-harvest maintenance is essential to prevent storage damage in pulse crops. Guidelines include harvesting pulses at full maturity, keeping the shed free from rodents, drying pulses to a suitable moisture content, storing grain free from moisture, heat, pests, garbage, and storing in well-ventilated and moisture-free containers.

Pulses should be stored in airtight containers and treated with coconut, mustard, groundnut, or sesame oil at a rate of 1 kg for every 100 kg for up to 6 months to save grain from pest infestation. This approach ensures that mung, black gram, pigeon pea, chickpeas, and dal do not rot after being stored.

How to Increase Pulse Production in India and World?

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