Fish Farming In Village Ponds

Fish Farming In Village Ponds

Fish Farming In Village Ponds

Introduction:

  • By keeping fish in village ponds in a scientific manner, the employment opportunities in the rural areas will increase and the financial condition will improve and also the nutritious protein rich food will be easily available to the rural people.
  • The average fish production per unit area of village ponds in all districts of India is about 2100-2400 kg per hectare.
  • Almost all the rural ponds in India are currently being fished in the traditional way, where large numbers of fry are released without preparation of the pond, after which the fry are reared on natural feed only.
  • The fish are also not given supplementary feed from outside, there is high mortality during fish seed rearing and the fish farmers are unaware of the diseases in the fish.
  • Due to all these reasons, India’s fish production is very low at present.
  • But if by using scientific method mixed fisheries, the rural fish farmers will get more income by producing more fish per unit.

Selection of Pond:

  • Perennial ponds that have water at least 1.5 meters deep are suitable for fish farming.
  • Shallow water is harmful to fish in summer due to heat from sunlight.
  • Excessively deep ponds as well as dense trees on the banks of the pond reduce the fertility of the pond as sunlight does not reach the bottom of the pond and therefore fish do not grow in size and weight.
  • Seasonal ponds which are not perennial ponds and have water from May to June can also be used for fish farming.
  • Good access roads to the lake are essential to facilitate the release of fry and catch fish to the market.

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Fish Farming In Village Ponds

Fish Farming In Village Ponds

Pond/Lake Improvement:

In order to make the selected lake suitable for fish farming, it becomes necessary to improve the lake. For that it is necessary to implement the various suggestions mentioned here:

  • Necessary testing of pond soil and water should be done.
  • The embankments of the pond must be strong.
  • During the monsoon, the embankment should be improved and drainage should be done to prevent the fish from being washed away in the lake.
  • Mesh of iron wire of size 0.5 cm must be constructed at the inlet and outlet of the pond, so that useless wild predatory fishes cannot enter the pond and the fishes reared in the pond do not escape.
  • Pond bottom is important for fish farming. As it is advised to apply different fertilizers in right amount after analysis of agricultural land, similarly it is necessary to analyze the bottom of the pond for fish farming.

Acidic soil:

  • If soil pH is less than 6.5 it is called acidic soil. Acidic soils can be improved by adding lime.
Soil pH

 

Type of Soil

 

Lime requirement in kg/ha

 

4.0 to 5.0

 

Highly acidic

 

2000
5.0 to 6.0

 

Moderately acidic

 

1200
6.0 to 6.5

 

Moderately acidic

 

1000
6.5 to 7.5

 

Close to fertile

 

400
  • This lime should be divided into 3 to 4 installments at an interval of two to three days and the young should be released after 15 days of the last installment.
  • Application of lime at the rate of 1 tonne per hectare in perennial village ponds where water cannot be drained/dried, so that decaying vegetation and unwanted wastes and harmful gases generated from the bottom of the pond can be removed.

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Fish Farming In Village Ponds

Fish Farming In Village Ponds

Alkaline Bottom:

  • The pH of the bottom soil above 8.5 are considered alkaline and should be amended with dung and gypsum.

Destruction of Harmful Vegetation:

  • In village ponds we see many types of vegetation, which are floating in the water and also under the water which are all the vegetation which are harmful to the fish as follows.
  • These plants release oxygen/respiration during the day while at night the plants consume oxygen and release carbon dioxide. Thus, abnormal fluctuations in dissolved oxygen levels in the water cause breathing difficulties for the fish and often prove fatal.
  • These plants consume a large amount of nutrients in the water, thus inhibiting the growth of fish.
  • Blocks the movement of fish and the floating vegetation on the upper layer prevents sunlight from reaching the bottom.
  • This vegetation becomes a hindrance during harvesting of fish.
  • So it is necessary to remove such plants from the lake. If the pond can dry up, during April-May the pond bottom should be exposed to sunlight and then plowed to destroy the vegetation. While in perennial ponds, such plants can be removed from the water by people using nets.

Destruction of Harmful Fish:

  • Before a village pond can be used for fish farming, it is necessary to destroy the harmful fish in the pond.
  • Commonly found predatory fish species in village ponds like Padin, Shingi, Ghoghala, Dok, Vam etc are carnivorous and other herbivorous fish species compete directly with farmed fish for food, space and oxygen. So as to kill species other than cultured fish by netting, drying ponds or using poisonous herbs/weeds.
  • Mahuwa cake @ 2000 to 2500 kg should be used in 1 hectare pond with 1 meter depth but its toxic effect remains for 15 to 20 days after adding this cake to the water.
  • For fish rearing the fry should be put in the pond after 15 to 20 days.
  • If cattle are drinking water in a village pond, do not do this experiment.

Fish Farming In Village Ponds

Fish Farming In Village Ponds

Increase fertility by adding fertilizer to the pond:

  • Fertilizer application is necessary to produce natural food for the fish in the pond.
  • Fish depend on small insects, plant and animal plankton.
  • These planktons cannot be seen with the naked eye but their quantity can be seen from the green-brown color of the water.

Cow Dung-Farm Yard Manure:

  • Cow dung should be applied as an initial dose of 5000 kg per hectare in the pond 15 days before hatching and then every month as required or 1000 kg per hectare.
  • This dung manure should be given by submerging the parts of the pond in water and slowly dissolving or else the dung should be mixed with water (rubbed) and sprinkled in the pond.

Chemical Fertilizer :

  • Any of the following Chemical Fertilizer as required

Fish Farming In Village Ponds

SNFertilizerDoseDuration
1Urea25 kg per hectare

 

Every month as required

 

2Ammonium Sulphate

 

30 kg per hectare

 

Every month as required
3Calcium Ammonium nitrate

 

 

30 kg per hectare

 

Every month as required

***Application of Triple Super Phosphate at 8 kg per hectare per month along with any other fertilizer will increase fish production.


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Fish Farming In Village Ponds

Fish Farming In Village Ponds

Selection of species of fish to be reared in the pond:

  • The species that can be cultivated mainly in fresh water in India are majorcarp (cutla, rohu, and mrigal) and exotic (foreign) carp (silver carp, grass carp, and common carp).
  • Indian Majorcarp-Katla, Rohu and Mrigal have different natural feeding habits.
  • Katla feeds on the surface of the lake, Rohu feeds in the middle and Mrigal feeds on the bottom.
  • If the pond is rich in submerged vegetation like hydrilla, ceratophyllum fodder then adequate amount of grass carp fish should be stocked. The main food of this fish is vegetation.
  • Apart from this, common carp as bottom feeder and silver carp as surface feeder can also be stocked in proper quantity.
  • In India, it will be fine if two or four varieties are mainly mixed. Among these four varieties, cutla 40 percent, rohu 30 percent, Mrigel 25 percent and common carp 5 percent. In the mixed breeding of three varieties, the ratio is Cutla 40 percent, Rohu 30 percent, Mrigel 30 percent.
  • Apart from fish, freshwater prawns can also be raised in freshwater ponds.
  • With proper care and high quality feed, a good production of prawn along with fish can lead to good income.

Storage of fish seeds in ponds:

  • Generally, fingerling or yearling size (45 mm to 100 mm) fingerling or yearling size (45 mm to 100 mm) should be stocked in ponds where disposal of waste fish is not possible in perennial village ponds so that they are capable of protecting themselves from predatory fish/aquatic animals and Mortality decreases and production increases.

Fish Farming In Village Ponds

Fish Farming In Village Ponds

SNType of fish seed

 

Collection number per hectare

 

1Fry (15 to 25 mm)

 

12000 to 15000

 

2Advance Fry (26 to 40 mm)7000 to 12000

 

3Fingerlings (41 to 60 mm)

 

7000 to 8000

 

4Advanced Fingerling (61 to 90 mm)

 

5000

 

5Yearlings (larger than 90 mm)

 

3000 to 4000

 

6Freshwater Prawn (P.L-20)

 

15,000 to 20,000

Fish Farming In Village Ponds


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Complementary (artificial) food:

  • It is generally observed that after stocking the fish seeds in the village pond, the fish farmers do not add supplementary (artificial) feed to the pond and leave the fish seeds on natural feed only.
  • Due to this, fish production will decrease. Hence it is very important to provide nutrition through artificial food in addition to natural food.
  • Generally, a diet containing 30 to 35 percent protein and 30 to 40 percent carbohydrates is required.
  • A mixture of different cake like Groundnut cake-20%, sesame cake -20%, Mustard cake-10%, menda kushki-40% and fishmeal (dried sea fish meal)-10% provides minerals and vitamins in the food.
  • Supplemental fish should be fed at the rate of 3 percent of their total weight per day in the morning and evening (twice) mixed as per 2 percent.

Fish Farming In Village Ponds

Water supply:

  • Village lake water is used for agriculture or animals and other ways.
  • Keeping this in mind, special care should be taken to ensure that the water level is sufficient for fish farming, especially in summer, the water level will begin to decrease.
  • At such times water level should be added from outside to 1 to 1.5 meters or fishes should be harvested with nets from the pond.

Harvesting:

  • Generally, the fish grown in the rearing area reach an average weight of 700 grams to 1000 grams within a year, so they can be harvested during this time.
  • Harvesting of fishes from ponds using spread nets when the water level falls in April-May (summer).
  • Generally, between 15th May to 30th August, there is a trend of rising prices in the market of marine fish due to decrease in income.
  • So that by harvesting during this period the price can be higher.

Fish Farming In Village Ponds

FAQs:

1. What are the selection criteria of Fish pond?

 Perennial ponds that have water at least 1.5 meters deep are suitable for fish farming.  Shallow water is harmful to fish in summer due to heat from sunlight.  Excessively deep ponds as well as dense trees on the banks of the pond reduce the fertility of the pond as sunlight does not reach the bottom of the pond and therefore fish do not grow in size and weight.  Seasonal ponds which are not perennial ponds and have water from May to June can also be used for fish farming.  Good access roads to the lake are essential to facilitate the release of fry and catch fish to the market.

2. What are the feeds or fertilizers required for Fish farming in village ponds?

 Cow dung should be applied as an initial dose of 5000 kg per hectare in the pond 15 days before hatching and then every month as required or 1000 kg per hectare.  This dung manure should be given by submerging the parts of the pond in water and slowly dissolving or else the dung should be mixed with water (rubbed) and sprinkled in the pond.  Urea@ 25 kg per hectare every month as required  Ammonium Sulphate @30 kg per hectare every month as required  Calcium Ammonium nitrate @ 30 kg per hectare every month as required  Application of Triple Super Phosphate at 8 kg per hectare per month along with any other fertilizer will increase fish production.

3. When Fish can be harvested from the Fish pond?

 Generally, the fish grown in the rearing area reach an average weight of 700 grams to 1000 grams within a year, so they can be harvested during this time.  Harvesting of fishes from ponds using spread nets when the water level falls in April-May (summer).  Generally, between 15th May to 30th August, there is a trend of rising prices in the market of marine fish due to decrease in income.  So that by harvesting during this period the price can be higher.

 

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