Elephant Foot Yam Farming

Elephant Foot Yam Farming 

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Elephant Foot Yam Farming | Suran Farming

Introduction of Elephant Foot Yam/Suran:

  • Elephant Foot Yam/Suran is a tuber vegetable crop grown in tropical and subtropical regions, believed to be native to South India.
  • In India, major Elephant Foot Yam/Suran growing states are Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh, Kerala, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Chhattisgarh, Maharashtra, and Bengal.
  • Elephant Foot Yam /Suran seeds are used as a vegetable, besides being used to flavor dal.

Name of the CropElephant Foot Yam/Suran
Botanical NameAmorphophallus paeoniifolius
Local NameSuran etc
Origin CountryIndia
FamilyAraceae
KingdomPlantae
Edible partsCorms
Major Growing States in IndiaGujarat, Andhra Pradesh, Kerala, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Chhattisgarh, Maharashtra, and Bengal etc.
Area Under Cultivation In India 2021-2236000 Ha
Production In India 2021-228.00 Lakh MT

Elephant Foot Yam name in Indian State:

  • Elephant phoot yam in hindi: Jimmy Kand
  • Elephant phoot yam Gujarati : Suran
  • Elephant phoot yam in Tamil: Chena, Chenai kizhangu, Kachul, Kanaikizhangu, Karakarunai, Karanai-kilangu, Karanaippala, Karnaikkizhangu, Karuna-kalang, Karunaikkalang, or Senai kizhangu.
  • Elephant phoot yam in Chhattisgarhi:Zimmikanda
  • Elephant phoot yam in Malyalam:Chena
  • Elephant phoot yam in Marathi: Suran
  • Elephant phoot yam in Oriya : Oluo

Elephant Foot Yam Flower:

  • Elephant Foot Yam plant flower generally bloom in the beginning of the rainy season.
  • Elephant Foot Yam plant flower is ugliest and big in size.
  • Elephant Foot Yam plant flower is funnel in shape.

Elephant Foot Yam Price:

  • Price is varies from city to city but on average Rs.200-250.

Also Read: Indian Bean Farming


Elephant Foot Yam Farming 

Elephant Foot Yam Nutrition 

  • 100 grams of Elephant Foot Yam /Suran contains 78.7 grams water, 1.2 grams protein, 0.1 grams fat, 18.4 grams of carbohydrates, 0.8 grams salts, 50 mg calcium, 34 mg phosphorus, 0. 6 mg iron, Vitamin A-434 IU, 0.07 mg Riboflavin, 0.06 mg Thiamin.
  • Therefore, considering the nutritional value of Elephant Foot Yam /Suran, it is an important root vegetable crop in India and for rest of the world.
  • A chemical substance called CALCIUM OXALATE is present in the wild type of Elephant Foot Yam /Suran, if we eat such Elephant Foot Yam /Suran, it causes movement in the mouth and throat.

Elephant Foot Yam Benefits

  • Elephant Foot Yam helps in regulates blood sugar level in human beings.
  • Elephant Foot Yam helps in removing lethal toxin from the human body
  • Elephant Foot Yam helps in lower cholesterol in human body
  • Elephant Foot Yam helps in slow down ageing of human body.
  • Elephant Foot Yam helps in improving Immunity of human body.

Elephant Foot Yam Farming | Suran Farming

Climate Requirement for Elephant Foot Yam /Suran

  • Elephant Foot Yam /Suran crops are favored by hot and humid weather.
  • A well-distributed 800 to 1200 mm rainfall during monsoon is suitable.
  • Rainfall and hot humid weather are essential for the vegetative growth of the crop, while cool and dry weather is essential during tuber development i.e. late stage of the crop.
  • High temperature is required for tuber germination at the time of sowing.

Also Read: Artemisia Farming


Elephant Foot Yam Farming

Suitable soil for Elephant Foot Yam /Suran

  • Elephant Foot Yam /Suran is a tuberous crop, the corms developed inside the soil, thus soil with well-drainage capacity, loose, fertile and rich in organic matter is suitable for its growth.
  • Generally, the crop grows well in medium black, white or sandy or riverine alluvial soils (in river bed soil).

Sowing time for Elephant Foot Yam /Suran

  • In winter, the tubers of Elephant Foot Yam /Suran remain in a dormant state.
  • With the onset of heat in the summer, physical activities begin in it, so the planting of Elephant Foot Yam /Suran should be done in the summer from 15 April to 15 May.
  • Thus, the Elephant Foot Yam /Suran grows before the rains so that there is no danger of rotting the nodes with rainwater.

Elephant Foot Yam Farming | Suran Farming

Elephant Foot Yam Farming 

Also Read:Basic Steps of Organic Farming, Methods and Benefits

Different Varieties of Elephant Foot Yam /Suran

  • Gajendra,
  • Lal Mawa,
  • White Mawa,
  • Sri Padma,
  • NDA-9

Method propagation of Elephant Foot Yam /Suran

  • Elephant Foot Yam /Suran is propagated through corms.

Seed treatment of Elephant Foot Yam /Suran

  • Two to three months, rest must be given to the nodes before transplanting the local Elephant Foot Yam /Suran.
  • Keeping the nodes in a moist environment under the shade of the tree before planting.It will cause the buds to sprout early, thus promoting faster and better germination of the nodes.

Elephant Foot Yam Farming | Suran Farming

Elephant Foot Yam Farming 

Also Read: Agnihotra Farming

Seed rate of Elephant Foot Yam /Suran

The following weight and total weight of tuber per hectare are required for planting different year

Crop yearTuber weight at the time of transplanting (grams)Requirement of tubers per hectare (kg)
First25 to 402780 to 4444
Second125 to 1756172 to 8640
Third500 to 7508888 to 1333
Fourth9260 to 115751000 to 1250
  • According to the results of the research conducted at some Agricultural Universities, it is recommended for the farmers that sowing of Gajendra variety of Elephant Foot Yam/Suran in heavy rainfall areas, 250-gram tubers of Elephant Foot Yam/Suran should be sown at 60 cm X 60 cm spacing gives maximum economic benefit.
  • In this way the cost of seeds can be reduced in the cultivation of Elephant Foot Yam/Suran.

Elephant Foot Yam Farming

Method of planting of Elephant Foot Yam/Suran

  • Where rainfall is high, soil drainage is normal and there is a possibility of water logging in the planted field, in such case 20 cm height bed should be prepared, tubers should be planted on it and arrangements should be made for the drainage of rainwater.
  • Where the amount of rainfall is low and the soil is well drained, it can be planted in flat fields.

Sowing distance of Elephant Foot Yam/Suran

  • Planting/Sowing distance of local Elephant Foot Yam/Suran of different years should be kept as given below keeping in mind the vegetative growth of the plant.

Crop yearSowing distance (cm)Number of knots required per hectareDepth of pit (cm)
First30 × 301,11,11110
Second45 × 4549,38215
third75 × 3517,77720
Fourth120 × 909,26030

Elephant Foot Yam Farming | Suran Farming

  • At the time of planting, the eye part of the node should be on the upper side, so that the Elephant Foot Yam/Suran nodes are placed in the previously prepared pit 5 to 7 cm above it.
  • Cover Elephant Foot Yam/Suran sprouts from the sunlight by planting sun hemp or cluster bean seeds in the field, then after 4 to 6 weeks bury it in the soil, which can add nitrogen and organic matter in the soil.

Also Read: Zero Budget Natural Farming


Elephant Foot Yam Farming 

Fertilizer requirement for Elephant Foot Yam/Suran

  • At the time of primary tillage, mix 25 tonnes of well-mixed Farm yard manure per hectare in soil.
  • According to the results of the research conducted at some Agricultural Universities for the organic cultivation of Elephant Foot Yam/Suran, the farmers who want to grow Suran (Gajendra variety) through organic farming should apply 5 tons of vermicompost (1.21% nitrogen) + 5 kg Azospirillum + 5 kg phosphobacteria+ 5 tons of ash is recommended.
  • Give/Apply vermicompost in two equal installments at the time of planting and one month after planting.

After Care of Elephant Foot Yam/Suran

  • Sowing 500 grams of Elephant Foot Yam/Suran in pits at a distance of 90 cm X 90 cm.
  • Before planting, submerge Elephant Foot Yam/Suran in a mixture of 2% cow urine, 5% Trichoderma and 0.5% Pseudomonas.
  • After that, apply 2.5 tonnes of vermicompost, 5 tonnes of ash, 5 kg Azospirillum and 5 kg phosphobacteria per hectare for better growth and development of crop.
  • After one month apply 2.5 tons of vermicompost per ha.
  • After one month spray mixture of 1.5% cow urine, 1.5% whey/butter milk, 0.5% Trichoderma, 0.5% Pseudomonas and 0.5% jiggery on the crop.

Elephant Foot Yam Farming | Suran Farming

Elephant Foot Yam Farming 

Also Read: Types of Mulching, advantages and Weed Control

Insect-Pest and Disease Management in Elephant Foot Yam/Suran

Disease

  • Collar Rot Disease
  • Elephant Foot Yam/Suran is infected by collar rot disease (Sclerotium rolfsi). The main cause of this disease is water logging in the field, poor drainage facility, and uneven soil.

Control Measures.

  • Select disease-free tubers for planting
  • Proper Drainage facility in the field
  • Application of Neem cake in the field
  • Use of bio-control agents like Trichoderma in the field
  • Drenching soil with 0.2% Captan for effective control

Mosaic Disease:

  • Mosaic disease is spreading through vectors like Aphids etc in the field, causing curling of the leaves by sucking the juice from leaves leading to very small size corms produced, there is an overall reduction of the crop yield per hectare.

Control Measures:

  • Use virus-free plants for sowing
  • Use systematic insecticides to control vectors.

Also Read: Source of Information for Women Farmers


Elephant Foot Yam Farming | Suran Farming

Elephant Foot Yam Farming 

Inter Cropping in the Elephant Foot Yam/Suran

  • Intercropping with crops like Black Gram, Green Gram, and Green leafy vegetables is to be carried out in the initial period of 02-03 months.
  • Intercropping can also be done with crops like Banana, Coconut, and other horticultural crops for additional income from the crop.

Irrigation Management in Elephant Foot Yam/Suran

  • In Elephant Foot Yam/Suran crops, the first irrigation should be given immediately after sowing and the second irrigation should be given 5 to 6 days after sowing.
  • If there is well-distributed rain in monsoon, there is no need to give water, but if the rain is prolonged, give irrigation as and when needed.
  • Stop watering/irrigation after 7 to 8 months, when the leaves turn yellow and fall to the ground.
  • Generally irrigate Elephant Foot Yam/Suran in 6 to 10 days depending on the season and soil type.

Weeding and Mulching in Elephant Foot Yam/Suran

  • Weeding as required in the crop and mulching around the stem of Elephant Foot Yam/Suran for good growth of the tubers.
  • In case of labor shortage use chemical weedicides for control of the weeds.

Elephant Foot Yam Farming | Suran Farming

Elephant Foot Yam Farming 

Also Read: DRONE USE IN AGRICULTURE

Harvesting of Elephant Foot Yam/Suran

  • The crop is ready after seven to eight months after planting. While the Gajendra variety of Suran is ready a little earlier.
  • When the leaf matures and turns yellow, the nodules in the soil are fully developed and know that the nodules are ready.
  • Even after maturity, the nodules can be kept in the ground and dug up as per the market demand, but in such case, light watering should be done after a long time, so that the nodules do not dry out.
  • If the market price is good, then the nodes can be harvested earlier than the full maturity i.e. in the month of September-October.
  • Although the discount is less by doing so, it is compensated by getting better market prices. Also, as the field is cleared early, planning for the next crop can be done and more time is available for land preparation.
  • Give light water before digging the nodules so that the nodules can be dug easily.
  • Take special care not to injure the nodes with the spade while digging. After digging the knots, remove the roots and soil above it and clean the knots.
  • In local Elephant Foot Yam/Suran, finger knots should be removed from fourth year and stored as seeds for planting the first year crop of Elephant Foot Yam/Suran.
  • After digging the tubers out of the ground, their weight decreases by 3 to 4% in the first four days and by 25 to 30% in the first month. Hence, when there is demand in the market, nodules should be dug and sent to the market immediately.
  • An average yield of 45 to 50 tons of tubers per hectare is obtained from the fourth year crop of Elephant Foot Yam/Suran.

Elephant Foot Yam Farming 

Summary:

Elephant Foot Yam/Suran is a tuber vegetable crop native to India, grown in tropical and subtropical regions. It has a nutritional value of 78.7 grams water, 1.2 grams of protein, 0.1 grams fat, 18.4 grams of carbohydrates, 0.8 grams of salts, 50 mg calcium, 34 mg phosphorus, 0.6 mg iron, Vitamin A-434 IU, 0.07 mg Riboflavin, and 0.06 mg Thiamin. The crop thrives in hot and humid weather, with high temperature required for germination.

Sowing Gajendra variety at 60 cm X 60 cm spacing maximizes economic benefits. Control measures include disease-free tubers, Neem cake, bio-control agents, and insecticides. Harvesting occurs after seven to eight months, with nodules fully developed when leaves turn yellow. It yields 45 to 50 tons per hectare if all the agronomical practices are followed as per recommendations made by the local Agriculture University in that Agro Climatic Zone.

Elephant Foot Yam Farming | Suran Farming

 FAQs

1. What are the nutritional value of the Elephant Foot Yam?

• Ans: 100 grams of Elephant Foot Yam /Suran contains 78.7 grams water, 1.2 grams protein, 0.1 grams fat, 18.4 grams of carbohydrates, 0.8 grams salts, 50 mg calcium, 34 mg phosphorus, 0. 6 mg iron, Vitamin A-434 IU, 0.07 mg Riboflavin, 0.06 mg Thiamin.

2. Which toxic chemical is present in the Elephant Foot Yam?

• Ans: A chemical substance called CALCIUM OXALATE is present in the wild type of Elephant Foot Yam /Suran, if we eat such Elephant Foot Yam /Suran, it causes movement in the mouth and throat.

3. What is the yield of elephant yam per acre and hectare in India?

• Ans: Per acre yield:20-40 tons, Per hectare yield: 50-100 tons

4. Which states in India grow elephant yam?

• Ans: In India, major Elephant Foot Yam/Suran growing states are Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh, Kerala, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Chhattisgarh, Maharashtra, and Bengal.

5. Which soil is best for yam?

• Ans: Elephant Foot Yam /Suran is a tuberous crop, the corms developed inside the soil, thus soil with well-drainage capacity, loose, fertile and rich in organic matter is suitable for its growth. Generally, the crop grows well in medium black, white or sandy or riverine alluvial soils (in river bed soil).

6. What are the different types/varieties of elephant yams?

• Ans: Gajendra, Lal Mawa,White Mawa,Sri Padma,NDA-9

 

 

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