Drumstick Farming (Moringa)

Drumstick Farming (Moringa)

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Drumstick Farming (Moringa)

Introduction of Drumstick-Moringa:

Name of the CropDrumstick/Moringa
Scientific NameMoringa oleifera
FamilyMoringaceae
GenusMoringa
Origin CountrySouth Asia
Major Growing countryIndia,Pakistan,Philippines, Sri Lanka, Malaysia Indonesia,Taiwan,Nepal etc

Drumstick-Moringa name in Various Indian States:

  • Drumstick-Moringa in Hindi:Sahajan
  • Drumstick-Moringa in Gujarati:Saragvo
  • Drumstick-Moringa in Marathi: Shevaga
  • Drumstick-Moringa in Tamil: Murungai
  • Drumstick-Moringa in Malyalam:Muringnga
  • Drumstick-Moringa in Telugu:Munagakaya
  • Drumstick-Moringa in Assamese: Sozina
  • Drumstick-Moringa in Bengali: Sajane Dauta
  • Drumstick-Moringa in Manipuri: Saja-na

Drumstick Farming (Moringa)

Drumstick-Moringa General Facts:

  • Drumstick-Moringa is one of the amazing useful deciduous trees on earth.
  • Drumstick-Moringa is a world’s important and wonderful tree of Moringaceae family
  • Drumstick-Moringa has good reputation in the country and the world as a ‘vegetable tree’.
  • The nutritive value of this tree along with its medicinal and industrial uses as a cash crop in agriculture has made this crop popular everywhere due to its high income and production in the short term.
  • Agriculturally, it is a very fast growing crop that gives a lot of income, if it is cultivated commercially.
  • Apart from this, cultivation of Drumstick-Moringa, which can be grown with less labor in roads, ditches, embankments, canals and fallow land.
  • It is a fast growing, drought tolerant (low water requirement) crop and easily adapted to different areas and farming systems.
  • Drumstick-Moringa plants can also be grown in kitchen gardens and rooftops in pots.

Drumstick Farming (Moringa)

Drumstick Farming (Moringa)

Uses of Drumstick-Moringa:

  • Every part of this tree like leaf, flower, fruit and root contains good nutrients and is useful in preventing many diseases. Hence used in the formulation of homeopathic, siddha and ayurvedic medicines.
  • This crop can be very useful as a nutritious food alternative, when the world’s elderly children and women are suffering from malnutrition.
  • The powder of the leaves of this crop can prove a very cheap tonic for this purpose.
  • The demand for the pods of this crop as a vegetable is increasing in the world day by day.
  • The oil obtained from its seeds (38 to 40%) is odorless and is used as food, cosmetic and lubricants.
  • The oil never spoils which is known as ‘Ben Oil’.
  • Each part of Drumstick-Moringa has a special use. Fresh leaves and pods as vegetables can be added to dal-shak-sambhar, curry, tea to make meals tasty and nutritious.
  • Leaves are dried and used in powder form in daily food
  • Drumstick-Moringa is very useful especially for the growing children of backward areas and pregnant women.

Also Read…….Custard Apple-Sitaphal- Farming


Drumstick-Moringa Cultivated area

  • About 45,000 hectares of Drumstick-Moringa are cultivated in India, out of which 13 lakh tonnes production is taken.
  • Drumstick-Moringa is grown in India mainly in the southern states like Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Kerala and Andhra Pradesh. Besides, perennial Drumstick-Moringa is planted  in Maharashtra, Gujarat and other states.
  • Farmers of India have been getting good income by planting rainfed varieties of Drumstick-Moringa and getting more production in a short time.

Weather requirement for Drumstick-Moringa:

  • This crop can be grown is tropical and temperate in region.
  • 25°C to 35°C temperature is suitable for Drumstick-Moringa but can tolerate temperatures up to 40°C and dry weather.
  • This crop can be easily grown when rainfall 250 to 1500 mm and 900 meters above sea level.

Drumstick-Moringa Soil Requirement:

  • Well-drained, loamy, medium black or sandy loamy soils of moderate fertility are preferred.
  • Drumstick-Moringa trees also produce in low fertile land on banks, embankments, roads etc.
  • Drumstick-Moringa can tolerate pH between 5-9. However, this crop does not grow well in waterlogged or very heavy black, sticky soils etc.
  • Apart from this, Drumstick-Moringa also grows well in Bhata soil. Drumstick-Moringa roots do not tolerate waterlogged conditions so care should be taken to avoid excess waterlogging around the roots and drainage of excess water from the field immediately.

Drumstick Farming (Moringa)

Drumstick Farming (Moringa)

Drumstick-Moringa Improved Varieties:

There are different varieties of Drumstick-Moringa cultivated in India. Two cultivars of Drumstick-Moringa are recommended by the Horticultural College and Research Institute, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Periyakulam.

Periyakulam-1 (PKM-1):

  • The variety PKM-1 is under cultivation in India, which is also known as Drumstick-Moringa.
  • Its lifespan is 4-5 years. Close planting is done at 3m x 3m.
  • This variety has been released in 1989.
  • The pods of this variety are tasty.
  • After planting, the flower sets in 6 months and the pods are ready for harvesting in 7 to 8 months.
  • The best time for pod harvesting is March to August.
  • Plants of this variety grow 4 to 6 meters tall.
  • It has 6 to 12 branches. The compound leaves of this variety are 40 cm long.
  • The length and upper side of the leaf is dark green and the lower side is light green.
  • The flower sits in a cluster. Approximately 25 to 50 flowers are found in a cluster.
  • But mostly only one pod is produced from a cluster. Rarely 2 to 4 pods sit.
  • Pods become edible after 65 days of flowering.
  • The pods of this variety are 70 to 90 cm long and 3 to 6 cm thick and weighs about 150 grams, which contains 70 percent of the embryo.
  • Annual production of 220 pods per tree and about 10 tons of pods per hectare can be taken.
  • After the harvesting of pods, it is cut at a height of 1 meter from the ground. In this way ratoon can be taken as a crop (major crop) for 4 to 5 years.
  • This variety can be taken as an inter crop in coconut plantations in initial period.
  • Also, intercrops like onion, capsicum, okra, brinjal, tomato and groundnut can be grown in the open field of Drumstick-Moringa.

Also Read SILAGE-GREEN FODDER PICKLE FOR CATTLE


 Periyakulam-R (PKM-2):

  • This is a hybrid variety recommended in January 2000, which has been prepared from the hybridization of MP-31 x AP-28.
  • Pods start coming in 6 months in this variety.
  • Color of pods is light green, length 45-75 cm, weight of pods is 280 grams, pods contain 70% embryo.
  • This variety has 300 to 400 pods per tree per year.
  • It has high water requirement and yields 98 tonnes per hectare.
  • This variety is very suitable for different cropping systems and different soils.
  • This variety can be taken as ratoon crop for 04-05 years.

Drumstick Farming (Moringa)

Drumstick Farming (Moringa)

Other Perennial varieties:

A. Kadumiyan Malai-1 (KM-1):

  • This variety produces 400 to 500 pods per tree per year.
  • The pods of this variety are 25 to 30 cm long.
  • As the plants of this variety are small, the pods are easy to harvest and can be grown as a ratoon crop for 3 years.
  • In this variety pods begin to sit after 6 months.

B. Dhanraj:

  • This variety has been released from K.R.C. College of Agriculture, US, Arbhavi, Karnataka.

C. Padra :

  • This variety grown in Padra area of Vadodara District ,Gujarat is known as Sargavi, which is a permanent tree.
  • Large in size with life span of 15-20 years, length of pods 30-45 cm, light green color, thicker pulp than other varieties, bushy at the ends, very tasty
  • This variety is in high demand for local or export and Mumbai vegetable market.
  • Production capacity 8-10 tonnes per acre (along Mahi river).

D. Jaffna :

  • This variety imported from Sri Lanka.
  • Pod  is  up to 3 feet long and
  • This varieties tree can produce 600 pods per tree per year.

E. Kodikalam :

  • It is planted in Trichinapalli district.  The pods are short (20-25 cm).

F. Rohit-1:

  • This variety has been selected by Mr. Babasaheb Marlei, a farmer of ‘Sinnar’ (SINNAR) of ‘SHAHA’ taluk, Nasik district, Maharashtra, after visiting several orchards.
  • The production of this variety starts after 4-6 months and gives production up to 10 years.
  • Pods  are 45-60 cm long and tasty
  • Yield  ranges from 3-10 kg per plant
  • Per acre yield is 7-12 tonnes.

G. Coimbatore-2 :

  • Production starts 8-9 months after planting.
  • Harvested twice a year, pod length about 1 ft
  • Generally 200-375 pods per tree.
  • Can give production for 4-5 years.

H. Sajna:

  • Flowering once in the  year and is under cultivation in West Bengal.

I. Najna :

  • Flowers thrice throughout the year, under cultivation in West Bengal.

Drumstick Farming (Moringa)

Drumstick Farming (Moringa)J. Other Varieties :

  • (Junagarh-Porbandar) Karelio
  • Sargavo (Bhavnagar),
  • Moringa GKVK-1,
  • GKK-VK-2,
  • Chavakacheri,
  • Durga,
  • Shabnam,
  • Kokan Ruchira (excellent Quality),
  • Cam Moringa (red color tip),
  • Mulaner,
  • Kodaikal Moringa (red color),
  • Expor Varieties: Valayapatti, Padra.

Drumstick Farming (Moringa)

Drumstick Farming (Moringa)

Drumstick-Moringa Propagation:

  • This crop is mainly propagated by seeds and cuttings.
  • The practice is to sow seeds (annual Drumstick-Moringag PKM-1) and cuttings (permanent Drumstick-Moringa e.g. Padra Drumstick-Moringa) directly or by sowing in polythene bags

(a) By seed

  • Grow in coco peat or moss media in plastic trays or 15 cm × 10 cm size plastic bag. After 30-45 days, the plants will be ready for planting.
  • The best time for sowing seeds is in the month of June-July or November.

(b) By cutting:

  • Take 100 to 150 cm length and 14-16 cm diameter twig of one year old Drumstick-Moringa
  • Keep the cuttings in shade for 2-3 days and treat the cuttings with 500 ppm IBA.
  • Allow the lower third of the cuttings to go into the soil for planting directly in the field or in plastic bags.
  • Mix 10 grams of trichoderma and five grams of pacilomyces per plant with 1 kg well-decomposed organic manure in the soil before planting.

Drumstick-Moringa sowing Distance:

  • 3 m x 3 m or 4 m x 4 m or 5 x 5 m
  • Spacing depends on soil type and production need. eg. 3m x 3m for Drumstick-Moringa (PKM-1) and 5m x 5m for long term i.e. permanent type (Padra Drumstick-Moringa)
  • If cultivated only for leaves spacing can be kept at a distance of 2m x 2m ONLY

Also Read…….Pomegranate Farming 


Drumstick-Moringa transplanting:

  • One meter wide and 30 cm height bed should be prepared and sow 2-3 seeds per pit or 2-2 cuttings can be placed directly.
  • After germination of plant, keep only one healthy plant and discard the rest plants for better growth and development throughout the year

Drumstick-Moringa Organic/Chemical Fertilizers (per tree):

  • Drumstick-Moringa crop does not require much fertilizer, but 20 ml Azotobacter + 10 ml PSB + 5 g Trichoderma fertilizer  should be applied per pit in a circle one meter from the trunk to get more and better quality production.
  • Besides this organic fertilizers, 7.5 kg well decomposed cow manure + 500 grams poultry manure + 250 grams of Neem cake (in the month of October) should be applied.

Drumstick Farming (Moringa)

Drumstick Farming (Moringa)

After planting

 

Deshi Compost (Kg)Nitrogen  (gm)Phosphorus (gm)Potash (gm)
1 year10201010
2 years20402020
3 years and

after that

30603030

Note: The above fertilizers should be given according to the chemical nutrients present in that fertilizer and as per availability of fertilizers in the open market

Drumstick-Moringa Sowing Time, Spacing and Seed Rate:

  • Drumstick-Moringa is sown in the month of June-July or November-December from seeds.
  • The favorable time for planting Drumstick-Moringa in India is the month of September because the flowering time does not fall in the rainy season
  • Sow 2 seeds in the center of  45 cm × 45  x  45 cm pit at depth of 3 cm or one month old healthy sapling is transplanted.
  • About 625 grams of seeds are required for sowing one hectare.
  • After 10 to 12 days of sowing, the seeds germinate.
  • Perennial Drumstick-Moringa is propagated by cuttings.

Drumstick Farming (Moringa)

Drumstick Farming (Moringa)

Drumstick-Moringa Seed Treatment:

  • Application of Azospirillum culture 100 g per 625 g of Drumstick-Moringa seeds before sowing, result in to rapid seed germination, increased vigor, rapid growth and increased seed production.

Drumstick-Moringa After care:

  • When Drumstick-Moringa plant is 75 cm in height i.e 60 days after planting, the tip of the main stem should be cut (called pitching), so that the lateral branches grow faster and the height of the plant is reduced, so that the pods are easy to get off.

Drumstick-Moringa Pruning:

  • First, the upright growing plants should be cut from a height of 1.5 meters (one and a half) to shoot out more branches.
  • Then after the completion of the pods picking in the year i.e. in May-June, cut the top 30-45 cm branches of plant.
  • Drumstick-Moringa trees should be pruned (2 m height) to keep them thick to facilitate podding and other farming operations.
  • Pruning is done for fodder Drumstick-Moringa to keep them plump.

Drumstick-Moringa water management:

  • Being a tropical crop, Drumstick-Moringa can tolerate waterlogging.
  • But as compared to perennial Drumstick-Moringa, since kharif Drumstick-Moringa is planted from seed and its roots are plump and spread quickly, it absorb more water from the lower layer of the soil, so it needs water every 27 days, while perennial Drumstick-Moringa needs water at every15 days.
  • Similarly, waterlogging for 20 to 30 days for flowering in rainfed Drumstick-Moringa increases the number of flowers and stunts the vegetative growth of the plant.
  • But water should not be drawn, when there are many flowers and pods sitting. Otherwise the flower and immature pods fall off and the pollen becomes dry and should not be overwatered at this stage.
  • Drumstick-Moringa trees release anti-transparent substances such as Green Miracle, PMA and Kaolin in drought conditions and extreme heat which prevent the flowers and pods from falling. Since Drumstick-Moringa branches, trunk and roots are bent, the tree breaks or is uprooted by high winds, so embankments should be built around the Drumstick-Moringa trunk and direct watering should not be given to the trunk.
  • If drip irrigation is to be done, laterals and emitters should be placed 1 to 1.5 feet away from the trunk of Drumstick-Moringa.
  • Deep tillage in summer, broad bed furrow method of planting, crop residue mulching, organic fertilizers and humic substances etc. should be collectively used to maintain adequate moisture in the soil, so that higher production can be obtained.
  • Drumstick-Moringa needs regular and proportionate watering. Irrigate every 4 to 6 days in summer and 8 to 10 days in winter. Especially good if a drip system can be installed. There is no need for special irrigation system, if Drumstick-Moringa is planted on the border or fence.

Drumstick Farming (Moringa)

Drumstick Farming (Moringa)

Drumstick-Moringa Intercropping:

  • In the first 2-3 years in permanent Drumstick-Moringa, crops such as non-vine vegetables, soybeans, cluster bean, alfalfa, groundnuts should be grown, so as to get additional returns.
  • Green manure is also very useful in adding organic matter and growing leguminous crops will add, additional nitrogen to the soil.

Drumstick-Moringa Weed Control:

  • Drumstick-Moringa crop should be kept weed free for first 30 to 90 days.
  • As the Drumstick-Moringa crop is sown at wide spacing, 3 to 4 times horizontal and vertical intercropping should be done.
  • Weeding, ploughing/harrowing is to be carried out to keep the soil loose and soft.

Crop Protection in Drumstick-Moringa:

(a) Drumstick-Moringa Diseases:

(1) Leaf spot: Spray any of fungicide like carbendazim, mancozeb or zainab to control leaf spot disease.

(2) Powdery mildew: Spraying Drumstick-Moringa crop with 0.2% soluble sulfur to control this disease.

(3) Root rot: Spray Drumstick-Moringa crop with carbendazim or thiophenate methyl or chlorothalonil to prevent disease.

(4) Wilt: Spray Drumstick-Moringa crop  with carbendazim or bonomyl to control this disease.

Also use biological fungicide Trichoderma (natural fungicide). Use chemical fungicides only if deemed necessary.

Drumstick Farming (Moringa)

Drumstick Farming (Moringa)

(b) Drumstick-Moringa Insect-Pests Control:

(1) Flower-eating caterpillars:

  • Destroy the damaged buds by combing them with caterpillars.
  • Install one light trap hectare
  • Spray Malathion 50 EC mix 2 ml with one liter of water.

(2) Leaf-eating caterpillars:

  • Drumstick-Moringa has a special infestation of leaf-eating caterpillars.
  • Use neem oil based or cow urine based pesticides to control this caterpillar.
  • Use insecticides only if necessary.

(3) Harry Caterpillar:

  • Destroy the eggs and caterpillars to control these pest.
  • Set one light trap per acre.
  • Spray any one of the medicines like Malathion 50 ec. (2ml/L), Nimbicidin (3ml/1L), Indoxacarb 15% (1ml/1L), Spinosad 45% (7ml/15L) Methomil 12.5 EC (5 ml. 10 liters) on crop

(4) Ash Weevil :

  • Kill adult weevils at the earliest
  • Apply 15 kg Carbofuran 3 % Granular per hectare 15 days after planting.

(5) Pod fruit fly:

  • The maggot enters the pod by making a very small hole at the end of the pod.
  • Damaged and fallen pods should be destroyed  from the orchard
  • Setting up one pheromone trap per hectare.
  • Insecticide Nimmesidine 3 ml mixed with one liter of water and spray twice one at 50% flowering and thereafter 35 days from first spray
  • 70% infestation is reported in South India due to this pest infestation.
  • Placing fermented tomatoes in the trap can attract male fruit flies.

(6) Stem-eating caterpillar:

  • Infestation of stem eating caterpillar is also observed sometimes in Drumstick-Moringa crop .
  • Clear the gallery on the trunk for its control.
  • Place a drop of cloth soaked in chloroform or formalin or petrol in the hole made by caterpillar.
  • For chemical control Indocjacarb 15 ml in 15 liters of water or spinosad 7 ml or Spark 35 ml or Methomil 5 ml should be sprayed mixing with 15 liter of water.

Drumstick Farming (Moringa)

Drumstick Farming (Moringa)

Drumstick-Moringa Harvesting:

  • Fully developed, tender and green pods should be harvested.
  • Ripe pods are fibrous.
  • Harvestable pods are ready in 6 to 8 months after planting.
  • Harvesting lasts for 2 to 3 months.
  • When the pods turn from dark green to light green, the plump pods are removed with a special type of bamboo chipper.
  • The pods are collected in a cloth spread at ground.
  • Collect the pods and clean it in the shade.
  • After washing with cold water and sorting, the pods of uniform length, thickness and quality of specific weight (5 kg) are weighed and packed in ventilator (mesh) bags or mesh bags and sent for sale in the market.
  • Keep the packing airtight.

Drumstick-Moringa Yield/Production:

  • Each tree gives 250 to 400 pods depending on the variety.
  • Accordingly, approximately 30 to 40 tons of production is available per hectare.

Drumstick-Moringa Packaging:

  • After harvesting, pods should be packed in polythene bags, so that there is minimum loss in weight and can be stored up to 15 days.
  • Also packing in polythene bag showed maximum carotene and ascorbic acid content than other packing.

Drumstick-Moringa Storage:

  • At 7 to 8°C temperature and 70 to 75% relative humidity

Drumstick-Moringa Value Addition:

  • Pickles
  • Leaf powder
  • Pod seed powder,
  • Capsules
  • Moringa tea
  • Moringa oil
  • Moringa cream etc. can be made from the Drumstick-Moringa seeds, pods, dry leaf etc.

Drumstick Farming (Moringa)

Summary:

The scientific name of Drum stick is Moringa oleifera having family Moringaceae. In hindi Drumstick-Moringa is called Sahajan. Drumstick-Moringa is one of the amazing useful deciduous trees on earth and it is  world’s important and wonderful tree of Moringaceae family. The nutritive value of this tree along with its medicinal and industrial uses as a cash crop in agriculture has made this crop popular everywhere due to its high income and production in the short term. Apart from this, cultivation of Drumstick-Moringa which can be grown with less labor in roads, ditches, embankments, canals and fallow land is economically very affordable.

Every part of this tree like leaf, flower, fruit and root contains good nutrients and is useful in preventing many diseases. Hence used in the formulation of homeopathic, siddha and ayurvedic medicines. The oil obtained from its seeds (38 to 40%) is odorless and is used as food, cosmetic and lubricant. This crop can be grown is tropical and temperate in region. 25°C to 35°C temperature is suitable for this crop, but can tolerate temperatures up to 40°C and dry weather. Well-drained, loamy, medium black or sandy loamy soils of moderate fertility are preferred by Drumstick-Moringa.

Drumstick-Moringa improved varieties are Periyakulam-1 (PKM-1), Periyakulam-2(PKM-2), Kadumiyan Malai-1 (KM-1), Dhanraj, Padra, Jaffna, Kodikalam, Rohit-1,Coimbatore-2, Sajna, Najna,(Junagarh-Porbandar) Karelio, Sargavo (Bhanagar),Moringa GKVK-1, GKK-VK-2,Chavakacheri,Durga, Shabnam, Kokan Ruchira (excellent Quality),Cam Moringa (red color tip), Mulaner, Kodaikal Moringa (red color), export Varieties: Valayapatti, Padra.

This crop is propagated by seeds and cuttings and sowing Distance is 3 m. x 3 m or 4 m. x 4 m or 5 x 5 m. One meter wide and 30 cm height bed should be prepared and sow 2-3 seeds can be placed or 2-2 cuttings can be placed directly. Drumstick-Moringa crop does not require much fertilizer, but 20 ml Azotobacter + 10 ml. PSB + 5 g Trichoderma fertilizer per pit in a circle one meter from the trunk to get more and better quality production. Besides 7.5 kg well decomposed cow manure + 500 grams poultry manure + 250 grams of Neem cake (in the month of October) should be applied.

Drumstick-Moringa is sown from seeds in June-July or November-December. Sow 2 seeds in the center of  45 cm × 45  cm x 45 cm pit at depth of 3 cm or one month old healthy sapling is transplanted. Being a tropical crop, Drumstick-Moringa can tolerate waterlogging. In the first 2-3 years of permanent Drumstick-Moringa, crops such as non-vine vegetables, soybeans, guar, alfalfa, groundnuts should be grown so as to get additional returns. Green manure is also very useful in adding organic matter and growing leguminous crops will add additional nitrogen to the soil.

Drumstick-Moringa crop should be kept weed free for initial 30 to 90 days.Major Diseases are (1) Leaf spot (2) Powdery mildew (3) Root rot (4) Wilt. Drumstick-Moringa major Insect-Pests are (1) Flower-eating caterpillars (2) Leaf-eating caterpillars (3) Harry Caterpillar (4) Ash Weevil, (5) Pod fruit fly and (6) Stem-eating caterpillar.

Fully developed, tender and green pods should be harvested. Each tree gives 250 to 400 pods depending on the variety. Accordingly, approximately 30 to 40 tons of production is available per hectare. Drumstick-Moringa Value added products are  Pickles, leaf powder, pod seed powder, capsules, moringa tea, moringa oil, moringa cream etc. can be made into products.

FAQs:

1. What is the scientific name of Drumstick or Moringa?

Moringa oleifera is the scientific name of Drumstick or Moringa.

2. What is the family of Drumstick or Moringa?

Moringaceae is the family of Drumstick or Moringa.

3. What is the Drumstick-Moringa name in various Indian States?

Drumstick-Moringa in Hindi:Sahajan Drumstick-Moringa in Gujarati:Saragvo Drumstick-Moringa in Marathi: Shevaga Drumstick-Moringa in Tamil: Murungai Drumstick-Moringa in Malyalam: Muringnga Drumstick-Moringa in Telugu: Munagakaya Drumstick-Moringa in Assamese: Sozina Drumstick-Moringa in Bengali: Sajane Dauta Drumstick-Moringa in Manipuri: Saja-na

4. What are the different uses of Drumstick-Moringa?

Every part of this tree like leaf, flower, fruit and root contains good nutrients and is useful in preventing many diseases. Hence used in the formulation of homeopathic, siddha and ayurvedic medicines. This crop can be very useful as a nutritious food alternative, when the world's elderly children and women are suffering from malnutrition. The powder of the leaves of this crop can prove a very cheap tonic for this purpose. The demand for the pods of this crop as a vegetable is increasing in the world day by day. The oil obtained from its seeds (38 to 40%) is odorless and is used as food, cosmetic and lubricants. The oil never spoils which is known as 'Ben Oil'. Each part of Drumstick-Moringa has a special use. Fresh leaves and pods as vegetables can be added to dal-shak-sambhar, curry, tea to make meals tasty and nutritious. Leaves are dried and used in powder form in daily food Drumstick-Moringa is very useful especially for the growing children of backward areas and pregnant women.

5. Name different varieties of Drumstick-Moringa?

Drumstick-Moringa improved varieties are Periyakulam-1 (PKM-1), Periyakulam-2(PKM-2), Kadumiyan Malai-1 (KM-1), Dhanraj, Padra, Jaffna, Kodikalam, Rohit-1,Coimbatore-2, Sajna, Najna,(Junagarh-Porbandar) Karelio, Sargavo (Bhanagar),Moringa GKVK-1, GKK-VK-2,Chavakacheri,Durga, Shabnam, Kokan Ruchira (excellent Quality),Cam Moringa (red color tip), Mulaner, Kodaikal Moringa (red color), export Varieties: Valayapatti, Padra.

6. What is the sowing period for Drumstick-Moringa?

Drumstick-Moringa is sown in the month of June-July or November-December from seeds.

7. What are the yield of Drumstick-Moringa crop?

Approximately 30 to 40 tons of production is available per hectare.

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