Custard Apple-Sitaphal-Sharifa-Sugar Apple Farming

Custard Apple-Sitaphal-Sharifa-Sugar Apple Farming

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Custard Apple-Sitaphal-Sharifa-Sugar Apple Farming

Introduction of Custard Apple:

Name of FruitCustard Apple
Scientific NameAnnona squamosa L.
FamilyAnnonaceae
GenusAnnona
KingdomPlantae
Origin CountryNorth America/Mexico
Other NameSugar Apple/ Bullock’s-heart etc
Hindi NameSharifa/Sitafal

Custard Apple Name in Various Indian States:

  1. Custard Apple in Marathi: Sitafal/Ata
  2. Custard Apple in Gujarati/Manipuri: Sitafal
  3. Custard Apple in Andhrapradesh: Sita phalam or Sita pallu
  4. Custard Apple in Karnataka: Seetaphala
  5. Custard Apple in Tamilnadu: Seetha pazham/Citta
  6. Custard Apple in Kerala: Matalam
  7. Custard Apple in Punjabi: Sharifa
  8. Custard Apple in Bengali: Shorifa
  9. Custard Apple in Assamese: Kothal
  10. Custard Apple in Oriya: Sitaphalo
  11. Custard Apple in Hindi: Sitaphal
  12. Custard Apple in Malyalam: Seethappazham
  13. Custard Apple in Sansakrit: Bahubijam

ALSO READ…..Pomegranate Farming (Anar/Dadam/Dalimb)


Custard Apple-Sitaphal-Sharifa-Sugar Apple Farming

Custard Apple-Sitaphal-Sharifa-Sugar Apple Farming

Health Benefits of Custard Apple:

  1. Custard Apple is a rich source of vitamin C, B6 and some minerals like potassium and magnesium etc.
  2. Custard Apple having ample vitamin C in it helps in boost immune system of human beings.
  3. Custard Apple is rich in dietary fibers, helps in easy digestion and prevent constipation.
  4. Potassium present in Custard Apple helps in maintaining healthy heart thereby helps in control blood pressure level.
  5. Presence of minerals like magnesium and calcium helps in maintaining strong bone and teeth.
  6. Custard Apple also helps in prevent Cancer
  7. Custard Apple has low calories and fibrous content helps in management of human weight
  8. Vitamin B6 present in custard apple helps in maintaining nervous system.
  9. Custard Apple helps in prevention of some fungal and bacterial disease.

Custard Apple-Sitaphal-Sharifa-Sugar Apple Farming


ALSO READ…..Frequently asked questions-PADDY


Custard Apple major growing countries in world

  • India
  • Australia
  • Brazil
  • Thailand
  • Mexico
  • Israel
  • China
  • Vietnam
  • Japan
  • African Countries
  • United States etc

Custard Apple major growing state in India

  • Andhrapradesh-Major
  • Maharashtra
  • Gujarat
  • Rajasthan
  • Karnataka
  • Punjab
  • Haryana
  • Uttar Pradesh etc

Custard Apple-Sitaphal-Sharifa-Sugar Apple Farming

Introduction of Custard Apple:

Custard Apple is native to North America. However, based on the Vedic Puranas, Custard Apple was found in the forests of India and gradually people came to know its use, then it started to be planted in dry areas or where there are fallow lands and there is no irrigation facility at all. Being sterile, its seeds can be used to kill head lice/nits. Grind the seeds in water and apply it on the head but be careful, not to get it in the eyes.

Custard Apple-Sitaphal-Sharifa-Sugar Apple Farming

Use of Custard Apple:

  • Custard Apple fruits are sweet and tasty, so they are used in food.
  • It is used in juice and ice cream with milk.
  • Custard Apple seeds contain about 3% oil. Being sterile, it can be used in dyeing, soap making etc.
  • The leaves and stems contain a bitter substance called ANANINE.

Suitable Weather for Custard Apple:

  • Custard Apple is a tropical fruit but can grow in temperate zone as it likes hot and humid weather.
  • The slightly cooler weather of early winter is favorable to Custard Apple.
  • But excessive cold adversely affects fruit ripening.
  • At the time of flowering, dry and hot winds reduce fruit set.

Suitable Soil for Custard Apple:

  • Custard Apple can be grown in different types of soil. Apart from sandy and silty soil, this crop can also be grown in stony and heavy black soil, if the drainage is good.
  • Soil cracking in heavy soils causes root damage.

ALSO READ…..Ber Fruit Farming Cultivation Guide 


Custard Apple-Sitaphal-Sharifa-Sugar Apple Farming

Custard Apple-Sitaphal-Sharifa-Sugar Apple Farming

Custard Apple Varieties:

  • Custard Apple is mostly propagated by seed  although crop lacks in stable varieties.
  • There are two different types of Custard Apple, red fruit and green fruit.
  • The leaves and fruits of the red variety are small in size. The color of the main veins of the fruit and leaves is brownish red and color of the pulp is pink.
  • There are many varieties of green fruit Custard Apple. According to the color of the peel, Custard Apple is found with a light green peel.
  • According to tissue size, Sindhan variety of Custard Apple with large brown tissue is grown in some district of India.
  • Its fruits are attractive, large in size and have a sweet pulp with less seeds.

Custard Apple-Sitaphal-Sharifa-Sugar Apple Farming

 Characteristics of Stable varieties of Custard Apple:

Variety nameFruit weight (grams)Number of seeds (per fruit)

 

TSS (%)

 

Acidity (%)

 

Washington 107005165

 

28

 

21

 

0.22

 

Sindhan

 

250

 

30

 

26

 

0.24

 

Mammoth

 

183

 

14

 

33

 

0.19

 

Balanagar

 

360

 

43

 

270.24
Red Custard Apple

 

231

 

54

 

25

 

0.21

 

A few varieties have been selectively developed in other states, particularly in Andhra Pradesh at the Sangareddy Fruit Research Center near Hyderabad, whose information is given in above TABLE.

Different varieties of Custard Apple:

Pinks MammothNa Di
African PrideKampong Mauve
GeffnerPink’s Mammoth Silky
Honey SweetKwik Drop
Late GoldMorning Star
MammothMossman

Custard Apple Propagation Method:

Custard Apple-Sitaphal-Sharifa-Sugar Apple Farming


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CUSTARD APPLE IS CULTIVATED IN TWO WAYS.

  • Seed propagation:
  • Custard Apple seeds have the potential to germinate for a long time.
  • Good ripe, plump fruits are seeded and dried and stored in a moist place.
  • In the second fortnight of April, seedlings are prepared in the nursery by making flat or cushioned bed or in polythene bags of size 10 × 15 cm filled with compost-soil mixture.
  • The saplings are planted in the field, when attain height of 20 to 25 cm in the rainy season.
  • Also the seeds can be sown directly so that the roots of the seedlings can go deep into the soil.
  • Propagation by grafting:
  • In vegetative method, Custard Apple can be propagated by cutting, grafting and eye grafting.
  • Custard Apple grafting can be done on rootstock of Ramphal, Laxmanphal or Custard Apple etc.

Custard Apple Spacing requirement:

  • A spacing of 5 × 5 m or 6 × 6 m is sufficient for systematic planting of Custard Apple.
  • Further excess spacing hinders fruit development.
  • A distance of 4 to 5 meters can be kept in dry areas.
  • Dig 45 × 45 × 45 cm pits according to the type of soil in summer. Fill the pits with soil mixed with 10 kg manure or compost, 2 to 3 layers of river silt in light soils and sand in heavy soils.
  • If there is good rain, replant in each pit and if there is no rain, give water as per requirement.
  • To keep the transplanted graft or plant standing upright, press the soil around the trunk properly and tie the graft or sapling to a wooden support and water it immediately.

Custard Apple-Sitaphal-Sharifa-Sugar Apple Farming

Custard Apple Fertilizer requirement:

  • There is no research-based specific amount of fertilizer recommended for Custard Apple trees.
  • According to the method to plant Custard Apple , farmers can apply 10 to 15 kg Farm yard manure, compost and 2 to 3 bucket river silt are applied per adult tree before the onset of monsoon.
  • Apart from this, 500 grams of Castor cake, 10 kg vermi compost, Neem seed cake 100-150 g/plant should be applied.
  • Use organic fertilizers like azotobacter, phosphobacteria, potash bacteria.
  • In organic fertilizers, Azotobacter 1 liter + Phosphobacteria 500 ml in 100 liters of water + Potash Bacteria 1 liter + Super Potassium Humic 1 liter + Seaweed (Seaweed Extract) 1 liter should be applied twice in a year.
  • Use organic materials such as dry leaves, various house and agriculture waste as well as easily available materials and organic waste.
  • Green manuring with cluster bean crop before sowing the Custard apple crop in main field and buried it in the soil after 30-45 after sowing, which add organic matter in the soil.
  • Such organic substances have excellent benefits. As such, it prevents water seepage and erosion. Forms the structure of particles in the soil. By increasing the porosity of the soil, the oxygen content in the soil increases. Increases the water storage capacity of the soil.
  • Stores nutrients in the soil. The soil has high levels of various enzymes and useful micro organisms. The various organic acids released from the decomposition of organic fertilizers are trace elements.
  • Provides food and energy to microorganisms. Controls changes in soil temperature. Improves saline and alkaline soils.

Custard Apple-Sitaphal-Sharifa-Sugar Apple Farming


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Custard Apple Training and Pruning:

  • In Custard Apple, mainly the flowers and fruits sit on the new grown branches. It does not require any special type of pruning, but keep removing the sprouting branches around the trunk, so that the shape of the tree is maintained.

Custard Apple Irrigation Management:

  • Custard apple crop does not require irrigation, but if 2-3 irrigations are given at the end of monsoon, the quality of the fruits improves and the production is good or increase.
  • If there is a lack of rain during the development of fruits, in this situation giving 1-2 irrigations improves the growth of fruits and gives more fruits of good quality.
  • Irregular watering can cause the fruits burst.

Intercrops with Custard Apple:

  • Custard Apple trees can be intercropped when they are young.
  • Monsoon vegetables like chilli, okra, choli can be sown in dry areas only in monsoon.
  • Winter vegetable crops can also be grown in irrigated areas.

Other care of Custard Apple:

  • As the Custard Apple crop is hard, it does not require any special care, but with care, fruit size and production can be increased.
  • If it has been properly planted, after the end of the monsoon, horizontal and vertical plowing should be done two or three times.
  • Keep the pit clean in monsoons season. Drain the pits from time to time.
  • If planted directly from seed in the filed and more than one seedlings in one place, nourish one good, strongly developed seedling and remove the rest.

Custard Apple-Sitaphal-Sharifa-Sugar Apple Farming

Custard Apple Fruit sitting

  • Custard Apple planted by grafting method bears fruit in three to four years.
  • While the seed sown Custard Apple takes about five to six years.
  • In the month of June-July, the tree gets a new branches and flowers and fruits start sitting on it.
  • Instead of coming out all flowering at once, flower-fruit sitting often lasts for a month or so.

Custard Apple Fruit picking

  • Generally, 3.5 to 4 months after flowering, fruits are ready to be harvested.
  • Fruit ripening on the tree causes a lot of fruit wastage. Hence the fruits are picked when ripe.
  • The color of the rind over the tissue of mature fruits varies from dark-green to slightly gray and the tissue is light brown and plump.
  • Fruits harvested in a slightly hard state before ripening are convenient for sending to distant markets.
  • Ripe fruits ripen in a few days after harvesting in dry grass cover. The fruits do not last long after ripening.
  • Depending on the flowering process, fruiting also takes one to two months. The fruits are harvested by hand picking.
  • After harvesting, the fruits are placed in the market in bamboo baskets with Custard Apple leaves or in well ventilated wooden or cardboard boxes or plastic crates covered with paper.

Custard Apple-Sitaphal-Sharifa-Sugar Apple Farming

Custard Apple Crop protection

 Custard Apple Insect Pests and their Management:

  • Although the Custard Apple crop is robust, there are usually no pests and diseases.
  • Among the Insect-pests MEALYBUGS infestation found sometimes, its moth and the female covered with a sheath of waxy filaments.
  • The female hibernates in a burrow in the bark of the trunk. After the end of the monsoon, the chicks come out of the eggs laid by the female and climb the trees and stay in groups on the tender parts of the trees and on the flowers to suck the sap.
  • Due to which production, quality and market price are adversely affected.

Custard Apple Mealybug Control Measures:

  • If possible deep tillage should be carried out in the Custard Apple orchard to destroy the eggs of mealy bug.
  • Cut the tree branches touching the ground.
  • Destruction of weeds and Custard Apple plants in the garden.
  • Remove and destroy the damaged fruits.
  • Apply grease around the trunk of the tree by placing a half to one and a half foot strip of polythene sheet at a height of half a foot from the ground.
  • Use Methyl Euzinol traps for fruit fly control.

Custard Apple-Sitaphal-Sharifa-Sugar Apple Farming

Custard Apple-Sitaphal-Sharifa-Sugar Apple Farming

Custard Apple Fruit Fly-Bactrocera Spp.

  • Fruit flies lays their eggs around Custard Apple fruits and its larvae feeds on the fruit resulting in to fruit rot.
  • Control Measures for Custard Apple Fruit flies:
  1. Remove all the fallen as well overripe fruits from the ground level and destroy them away from the fruit orchard
  2. Set up fruit fly traps in the orchard to capture adult flies.
  3. Cover the well-developed fruits with polythene bags during initial fruit setting stage.
  4. Spray Malathion 50 EC at 0.1%
  5. You can also spray crop with Fenthion 100 EC at 1 ml/litre

Custard Apple-Sitaphal-Sharifa-Sugar Apple Farming

Custard Apple Scale Insects:

  • Scale Insect is found in leaves and stems, sucking sap from it and weaken the plants.
  • They also produce sticky substances i.e. honey dew which also attract ants and promotes the growth of sooty mold.
  • Control Measures for Custard Apple Scale Insect:
  1. Ensure cutting of infected portion of trees and destroy it away from orchard.
  2. Release natural predators like lady bugs.
  3. Apply Horticultural oils to suffocate and effective control of scales.

Custard Apple-Sitaphal-Sharifa-Sugar Apple Farming

Custard Apple Aphids:

  • Habit of feed on tender new growth of plants and act as a vector for plant viral disease.
  • Aphid cause stunted plant growth and secrete honeydews.
  • Control measures for Custard Apple Aphids
  1. Wash of Aphid infected plant with steam of water
  2. Use Neem oil for control of Aphids
  3. Release natural predators like lady bugs.

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Ants:

  • Ants attracts towards honey dew secreted by sucking pests
  • Control measures for Custard Apple Ants
  1. Use sticky barriers to control upward movement of ants on trees
  2. Remove honey dew infected portion of plant immediately and destroyed it away from the orchard

Custard Apple-Sitaphal-Sharifa-Sugar Apple Farming

Custard Apple Fruit Borer:

  • Its caterpillar bore into the fruits and make hall inside it.
  • Remain inside fruit for long time and feed on the fruit pulp
  • Affected fruits drop to ground after some days
  • Control measures of Custard Apple Fruit Borer
  1. Collect damaged and dropped fruits from ground and take away from the orchard
  2. Spray Endosulfan 0.07% or Malathion 0.1%-2 times once at Flower formation and second at fruit setting stage.

Custard Apple-Sitaphal-Sharifa-Sugar Apple Farming

Custard Apple Diseases and their Management:

Major disease affect Custard apple plant is Anthracnose

  • Anthracnose:
  1. Affected fruits shrivel and may drop within short time
  2. Round spot of 2-8 mm in diameter appear on fruits, later on fruit turn to dark brown to black spot.
  3. Gradually this spot cover entire fruit
  4. Wet condition generally favors this disease.

Custard Apple-Sitaphal-Sharifa-Sugar Apple Farming

  • Custard Apple Anthracnose Control:
  1. Spray the trees with Copper Oxychloride
  2. Spray with fungicides like Mancozeb every 2-3 weeks
  • Other Disease are:
  1. Leaf spot
  2. Diplodia rot
  3. Black canker
  4. Spiral nematode and Stunt nematode

Custard Apple yield:

  • After fruiting, Custard Apple trees give good yield for 12 to 15 years.
  • About 50 to 100 fruits are obtained per adult tree.
  • 8000 to 10000 kg per hectare.

Custard Apple-Sitaphal-Sharifa-Sugar Apple Farming

Custard Apple-Sitaphal-Sharifa-Sugar Apple Farming

Conclusion:

  • Custard Apple, a tropical fruit native to North America and Mexico, offers numerous health benefits, including vitamin C, B6, and minerals like potassium and magnesium. It boosts the immune system, aids digestion, and prevents constipation. Custard Apple is rich in dietary fibers, potassium helps maintain a healthy heart, and minerals like magnesium and calcium support strong bones and teeth. It also helps prevent cancer, has low calories, and is rich in vitamin B6.
  • Custard Apple is cultivated in major growing countries in India, Australia, Brazil, Thailand, Mexico, Israel, China, Vietnam, Japan, Africa, and the United States. Custard Apple trees can be propagated through seed propagation and grafting. Seed propagation involves seeding and drying the fruits, while grafting involves grafting on rootstock of Ramphal, Laxmanphal, or Custard Apple. Pits should be dug 45 × 45 × 45 cm in summer, filled with soil mixed with 10 kg of manure or compost, 2 to 3 layers of river silt in light soils, and sand in heavy soils.
  • Watering should be given as per requirement. Fertilizer requirements for Custard Apple trees include 10 to 15 kg of farm yard manure, manure, and 2 to 3 buckets of river silt before the onset of monsoon. Green manuring with cluster bean crop before sowing the Custard apple crop in the main field and burying it in the soil after 30-45 days adds organic matter to the soil. Training and pruning are essential for maintaining the tree’s shape. Irrigation management is crucial for fruit quality and production.
  • Custard Apple fruit sitting takes about three to four years, while seed sown Custard Apple takes about five to six years. Fruit picking occurs 3.5 to 4 months after flowering, with fruit ripening causing fruit wastage. The fruits are usually harvested when ripe, with the rind varying from dark-green to slightly gray and the tissue light brown and plump.
  • Custard Apple is a robust crop that typically does not have pests or diseases. However, it is susceptible to insects such as mealybugs, scale insects, aphids, ants, and fruit borers. Control measures for scales include washing affected plants with steam water, using Neem oil for aphid control, and releasing natural predators like lady bugs. Fruit borers can cause damage to the fruit pulp and cause it to drop to the ground. Anthracnose is a major disease affecting Custard Apple plants, causing shriveled fruits, round spots, and black spots. Overall, custard apple trees provide good yields for 12 to 15 years, with approximately 50 to 100 fruits per adult tree and 8000 to 10,000 kg per hectare.

Custard Apple-Sitaphal-Sharifa-Sugar Apple Farming

Custard Apple-Sitaphal-Sharifa-Sugar Apple Farming

FAQs

1. What is the scientific name of Custard Apple/Sitaphal/Sharifa?

Ans: The scientific name of Custard Apple/Sitaphal/Sharifa is Annona squamosa L.

2. Name of Custard Apple/Sitaphal/Sharifa family?

Ans: Annonaceae

3. Major Custard Apple growing states in india?

• Andhrapradesh-Major • Maharashtra • Gujarat • Rajasthan • Karnataka • Punjab • Haryana • Uttar Pradesh etc

4. What are the Health Benefits of Custard Apple?

1. Custard Apple is a rich source of vitamin C, B6 and some minerals like potassium and magnesium etc. 2. Custard Apple having ample amount vitamin C in it helps in boost immune system of human beings. 3. Custard Apple is rich in dietary fibers, helps in easy digestion and prevent constipation. 4. Potassium present in Custard Apple helps in maintaining healthy heart thereby control blood pressure level. 5. Presence of minerals like magnesium and calcium helps in maintaining strong bone and teeth. 6. Custard Apple also helps in prevent Cancer 7. Custard Apple has low calories and fibrous content helps in management of human weight 8. Vitamin B6 present in custard apple helps in maintaining nervous system. 9. Custard Apple helps in prevention of some fungal and bacterial disease.

5. Which type of Weather is suitable for Custard Apple farming?

Custard Apple is a tropical fruit but can grow in temperate zone as it likes hot and humid weather. • The slightly cooler weather of early winter is favorable. • But excessive cold adversely affects fruit ripening. • At the time of flowering, dry and hot winds reduce fruit set.

6. Which type of soil is suitable for Custard Apple farming?

• Custard Apple can be grown in different types of soil. Apart from sandy and silty soil, this crop can also be grown in stony and heavy black soil if the drainage is good. • Soil cracking in heavy soils causes root damage.

7. Name different varieties of Custard Apple?

Pinks Mammoth Na Di African Pride Kampong Mauve Geffner Pink’s Mammoth Silky Honey Sweet Kwik Drop Late Gold Morning Star Mammoth Mossman

8. Spacing for Custard Apple farming?

A spacing of 5 × 5 m or 6 × 6 m is sufficient for systematic planting of Custard Apple. • Further excess spacing hinders fruit development. • A distance of 4 to 5 meters can be kept in dry areas.

9. What is the Custard Apple yield/production?

• After fruiting, Custard Apple trees give good yield for 12 to 15 years. • About 50 to 100 fruits are obtained per adult tree. • 8000 to 10000 kg per hectare.

10. What is the profit per acre in Custard Apple Farming?

Approximately INR:125,000-325000 ONLY

 

 

 

 

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