Cultivation Technology for Oyster Mushroom

Cultivation Technology for Oyster Mushroom

Cultivation Technology for Oyster Mushroom

Introduction:

  • The consumption of mushrooms in five-star hotels, restaurants, and households as a green vegetables has started to increase to a good extent.
  • Mushrooms are being used in soups, Punjabi vegetables, salads, pulaos, pakodas, pizzas, and also in sandwiches. Thus, mushroom dishes are currently a fashion.

Importance of Mushrooms as food:

  • Mushroom is an excellent food with great taste, aroma, and high quality and nutrients.
  • It is rich source of protein and phosphorus.
  • There are minerals like sodium and potassium, vitamin B, thiamine, riboflavin, vitamin C, vitamin K, carbohydrates, amino acids, and some disease-fighting antibodies are also found in the mushroom.
  • According to scientists, 100 to 200 grams of dried mushrooms meet the nutritional requirements of an adult.
  • 454 grams of fresh mushroom gives 120 kilo calories.
  • The digestibility of protein in mushrooms is 72 to 83 percent, which is equivalent to animal protein.
  • Mushrooms contain sufficient amounts of the amino acids, lysine and tryptophan as complementary nutrients.
  • It has less than 1 % fat content and is high in free fatty acids.
  • Mushroom is an excellent food for heart patients, while carbohydrates (sugar) are a boon for diseases like hypertension.

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Cultivation Technology for Oyster Mushroom

Cultivation Technology for Oyster Mushroom

Advantages of Mushroom cultivation:

  • As mushroom cultivation is easy and cheap, it can become a good source of income or livelihood for small and marginal farmers as well as landless farmers.
  • Good return on investment is obtained and fixed permanent income is earned against uncertain rain-fed farming.
  • The requirement of land, seeds, fertilizers, pesticides, electricity, water, etc. equipment is limited.
  • Residues raised after mushroom harvesting can be used as cattle feed, high-quality fertilizer or for biogas production.
  • At the rural level, women can use their spare time in agriculture and it can also be developed as a home industry.
  • Increasing the use of mushrooms as food reduces the burden on other food.
  • Mushroom crop is completed in a short period of time, the investment is recovered quickly, and mushroom cultivation can be done in any season.
  • Mushrooms can be grown on most of the cellulose-containing wheat–paddy straw, banana stem, sugarcane bagasse etc. Thus the adage of “best from waste” can be realized through mushroom cultivation.
  • Pleurotus mushroom cultivation is more suitable considering the climate of India. Also Pleurotus mushroom is superior in terms of aroma and taste as well as quality compared to other mushrooms.
  • Mushroom cultivation provides self-employment and reduces unemployment of country.
  • Agaricus bisporus (White button mushroom), Wolvariella volvacia, Wolvariella diplesia, Pleurotus sajor-kaju are the main cultivated varieties of mushroom in India.
  • It is not possible to grow all kinds of mushrooms naturally in our environment. Thus in India, cultivation of Pleurotus sajor-kaju and Voltarilla voltacea species are generally grown by the farmers for commercial purposes.

Cultivation of Oyster or Pleurotus Mushroom:

  • Cultivation of this mushroom can also be done easily in a closed room by creating proper humidity and temperature.
  • There are many varieties of Pleurotus. But Pleurotus sajor-kaju gives a high yield in between temperatures 20° to 30°C and can be grown easily on farm produce like wheat, paddy straw, etc.
  • These mushrooms can be easily grown in polythene bags, nylon nets, basket trays, etc.
  • This mushroom can be dried and stored at room temperature for up to one year.
  • It can be harvested within a short period of only one month.

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Cultivation Technology for Oyster Mushroom

Cultivation Technology for Oyster Mushroom

Minimum Requirements for Pleurotus Mushroom Cultivation:

  • Grass/straw (paddy or wheat)
  • Spawn Bottle (Seeds)
  • Formalin (30 percent)
  • Carbendazim (Bavistin 50% w.p.)
  • Plastic bag (100 gauge, measuring 34 × 50 cm)
  • Wooden or bamboo boxes
  • Cutting tool (scissors or cutters)
  • Pump or sprinkler for spraying water
  • Thermometers and hygrometers
  • Kantan Bags, Sand, etc
  • To grow this mushroom, select a room size of 30 feet x 15 feet in, which about 2000 to 3000 bags can be kept.
  • Spread paddy or wheat straw over the shed as a heat barrier and keep windows or ventilation in the wall at a suitable distance for air circulation and put exhaust fan in front of the window.

Pleurotus Mushrooms Cultivation Method:

Pleurotus mushrooms can be grown in two ways in India and various states.

(1) Mushroom cultivation by making a bed in a plastic bag:

  • For mushroom cultivation select good quality paddy or wheat hays/straw and cut them into 3 to 5 cm lengths pieces.
  • Wheat straw from thresher is more suitable because the labor cost of cutting the straw is saved.
  • For cultivation of this type of mushroom, 100 gauge 35 cm × 50 cm long plastic bag, Formalin (37 percent), carbendazim (Bavistin), and seeds (spawn bottles) are required.
  • First, the straw (from the thresher) is soaked in plain fresh water for 4 to 8 hours, then the excess water is drained off from the straw
  • When the straw prepared in this way has 60-70 percent moisture, it should be filled in a plastic bag @ 5-6 kg having 35 cm × 50 cm size as mentioned above.
  • After filling the straw at every 5 to 8 cm layer every time 2% of the straw (200 grams per 10 kg of straw) should be sprinkled and lightly pressed.
  • Once the bag is full, tie its mouth tightly and make 20 to 25 small holes with a stitch from all sides, so that air can easily circulate.
  • The bags thus prepared are placed on a wooden rake for 15 days at 20 to 30 degree Celsius temperature.
  • Store in a dark place at 75 to 80 percent humidity. Thus, in 15-20 days, the paddy straw will be completely covered with white filaments (mycelium) of the fungus.
  • After that save and open the plastic bag with a sharp paddle to reveal the amount of straw.
  • By doing this, in four to five days, mushrooms like heads of stitches will start coming out and in a week, mushrooms suitable for cutting will be ready, which can be harvested and sold.

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Cultivation Technology for Oyster Mushroom

Cultivation Technology for Oyster Mushroom

(2) Cultivation of mushrooms by making Beds:

  • The paddy straw for mushroom cultivation should not be green in color or wet or rotten by rain or other water should be seedless and firm and should not be trampled under the feet of oxen.
  • First of all, dry paddy or wheat straw spread out in the sun, then cut into two feet (1 m) lengths, put in a cloth bag, and close the mouth.
  • Prepare these bags by adding 7.5 grams of Carbendazim (Bavistin) and 67.5 ml formalin (formaldehyde) in 100 liters (10 buckets) of water and immerse them for 12 to 18 hours.
  • On the next day, take these bags out of the water and drain the straw in a sloping place.

 How to make Beds:

  • Arrange bamboo or wooden slats on the bricks in such a way that the air below can circulate easily.
  • Keep the length/width of one meter or equal to the length of the pool.
  • In such a beds, the straw is arranged horizontally in a cross shape, so that all the ends are on the outside.
  • 1 kg of straw should be used to prepare such a beds.
  • Spread paddy straw in a layer of 3 to 4 inches and spread spawn over it after leaving 15 cm space from the edge.
  • Then sprinkle soya dal or tur dal powder/fine flour over it. In this way, make a total of three layers, one horizontal and the other vertical, and on each layer, spread the flour of spawn and soybean or tur dal as before.
  • Press and harden the prepared bed and cover it with plastic in such a way that the ends are open.
  • Spray water as needed, lift the plastic, and cover each time.
  • Do not touch it after it is ready. Thus, in 15-20 days, white filaments (mycelium) of mushroom fungus will grow in all the straw and after that in 4-5 days, mushroom sprouts will sprout from it, which will be ready to cut in 2-3 days.
  • Thus two to three crops can be harvested from one bed.

Cultivation of oyster or Pleurotus mushroom:

  • Dried straw of paddy or wheat bran
  • Cut paddy straw into 3 to 5-cm pieces
  • Soak in water for 8 to 12 hours
  • Drain the excess water
  • Fill in a plastic bag (35 × 50 cm size)
  • Fill in a Kantan bag
  • Soak paddy or wheat straw in hot water at 80 to 90-degree temperature for 10 to 15 minutes.
  • After cooling, add mushroom spawn (seeds) in it @ 2 percent as per the solution
  • Mushroom spawn run (0-25 days)
  • Pin head stage of mushroom (3-5 days)
  • First harvest (3-4 days)
  • Later harvesting at an interval of 10 days
  • Total harvesting time: (20 to 30 days)
  • Sales arrangements
  • Fresh
  • By drying

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Cultivation Technology for Oyster Mushroom

Cultivation Technology for Oyster Mushroom

Cultivation of Paddy straw Mushroom:

  • Volverilla volvacia and Voltarilla diplasia are both grown especially on paddy straw, so they are also known as paddy straw mushrooms.
  • For this, two-foot-long pieces of fully dried paddy without any green grass stalks, not soaked by rain or moisture, soaked in chlorine free water for 24 hours.
  • On the next day, separate the pods and spread them in a layer of three to four inches and sprinkle the spawn (mushroom seeds) from its seed-bearing bottles on the inner edge leaving some space around it and sprinkle it with gram flour.
  • Then, as before, pass one of the second cross line horizontally and the other vertically and sow the spawn as before.
  • Make four to five layers in this way. Thus most apart from the upper one, the spawns in the rest are not spanned in the middle but are spanned all around the edges.
  • While in the lowest layer, the spawn is nailed in the middle. Then finally a thin layer is spread over it and a little water is sprinkled and it is covered with a plastic seat to retain the moisture.
  • After sowing the spawn in this way, sprinkle water very gently with a small sprayer once or twice a day as needed, and keep the plastic open for two hours a day.
  • After sowing, the spawn emerges in 10 to 12 days. The mushroom is cut before it is ready enough to open.
  • These cut mushrooms need to be sold within a few hours, as loss of weight of five to ten percent every 2 hours due to water loss and quality also decreases.
  • In this way, mushroom cultivation takes about a month from sowing to harvesting.
  • For this purpose, if paddy seeds are left in the paddy straws that are selected, the growth of the seeds will break the growth network (mycelium) of the mushroom. So the expected product does not come.
  • As the sticks in paddy are thick, the growth of mushroom is good.
  • Therefore, especially tall growing varieties of paddy like Masoori should be selected.
  • Once used, the grass cannot be used again to grow mushrooms.
  • For its disposal, it should be applied as compost in the manure pit so that it can be properly utilized in the compost.

Mushroom yield:

  • Average Mushroom yield per bag is 1.5-2.00 kg, if good care is taken by the owner.

Cultivation Technology for Oyster Mushroom

FAQs:

1. What are the different types of Mushroom cultivated in India?

Ans: Agaricus bisporus (White button mushroom), Wolvariella volvacia, Wolvariella diplesia, Pleurotus sajor-kaju are the main cultivated varieties of mushroom in India. It is not possible to grow all kinds of mushrooms naturally in our environment. Thus in India, cultivation of Pleurotus sajor-kaju and Voltarilla voltacea species are generally grown by the farmers for commercial purposes.

2. What are the main Benefits of Mushroom Cultivation?

Ans: As mushroom cultivation is easy and cheap, it can become a good source of income or livelihood for small and marginal farmers as well as landless farmers. • Good return on investment is obtained and fixed permanent income is earned against uncertain rain-fed farming. • The requirement of land, seeds, fertilizers, pesticides, electricity, water, etc. equipment is limited. • Residues raised after mushroom harvesting can be used as cattle feed, high-quality fertilizer or for biogas production. • At the rural level, women can use their spare time in agriculture and it can also be developed as a home industry.

3. What are the materials required for Pleurotus Mushroom Cultivation?

• Grass/straw (paddy or wheat), Spawn Bottle (Seeds), Formalin (30 percent), Carbendazim (Bavistin 50% w.p.),Plastic bag (100 gauge, measuring 34 × 50 cm),Wooden or bamboo boxes, Cutting tool (scissors or cutters),Pump or sprinkler for spraying water, Thermometers and hygrometers, Kantan Bags, Sand, etc

4. What are the average yield of Mushroom per bag?

Ans: The average yield of Mushroom per bag is around 1.5-2.00 kg.

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