Ber Fruit Farming Cultivation Guide Details

Ber Fruit Farming Cultivation Guide Details

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Ber Fruit Farming Cultivation Guide Details

Ber Fruit:

  • Scientific name of Ber Fruit is Ziziphus mauritiana, belonging to the family Rhamnaceae. It is mainly grown for the purpose of raw eating in India and has also some medicinal properties. It grown in many states in India. It has also some regional names in different states of India as under:
  • Ber Fruit English Name is Jujube, Dessert apple, Indian palm, etc
  • Ber Fruit Hindi Name is Chini Khajur
  • Ber Fruit Gujarati Name is Bor, Bor, Bor, Bordi (Plant) etc
  • Ber Fruit Kannada Name is Yolachi
  • Ber Fruit Telugu Name is Regu chettu
  • Ber Fruit Sanskrit Name is Badri
  • Ber Fruit Punjabi Name is Ber
  • Ber Fruit Odiya Name is Barakoli
  • Ber Fruit Assamese Name is Bogori
  • Ber Fruit Manipuri Name is Boroi
  • Ber Fruit Bengali Name is Kul or Topa Kul

Ber Fruit Name in Different countries worldwide:

  • Ber Fruit Indian Name is Ber
  • Ber Fruit Trinidad Name is Drunk
  • Ber Fruit Malasiya Name is Bedara
  • Ber Fruit Jamaica Name is Coolie Plum
  • Ber Fruit USA-American Name is Chinese date, red date, or Tsao

Ber Fruit Farming Cultivation Guide Details

Ber Fruit Farming Cultivation Guide Details


Ber Fruit Eating benefits:

  • Ber Fruit helps in Better Sleeping
  • Ber Fruit is a rich source of vitamin C
  • Ber Fruit helps in improving bone strength in Human
  • Ber Fruit helpful in Blood Circulation in Human
  • Ber Fruit Rich source of Anti-Oxidants
  • Ber Fruit Boost the Immunity in Human
  • Ber Fruit Improves digestion in human
  • Ber Fruit is also useful in Piles, Hair loss, wrinkles, etc
  • Ber Fruit can Combat Cancer in human
  • Ber Fruit also helpful in Weight loss
  • Ber Fruit has Anti-inflammatory properties

Climate for Ber Fruit Farming:

  • Ber  prefers hot summer and cool and dry climates in winter.
  • It can grow about 1000 m above sea level.
  • Ber sheds its leaves in summer and remains dormant, so it can withstand heavy waterlogging in the hot summer.
  • Hence it can grow in arid as well as semi-arid areas.
  • When the temperature drops below the freezing point in winter, the fruit and shoots are damaged.

Ber Fruit Farming Cultivation Guide Details

Ber Fruit Farming Cultivation Guide Details

Land for Ber Fruit Farming:

  • Ber can generally be grown in all types of soil.
  • However, sandy, loamy, and well-drained soils are preferred for Ber Farming.
  • A soil with a pH value of 7.0 to 7.5 is more suitable for Ber.
  • Ber can also be grown in moderately saline soils.
  • But heavy clay and black soil are less suitable.

Varieties of Ber Fruit:

  • About 125 species of Ber exist in India.
  • In Ber overall, Umran, Gola, Sev, Mehroon, Ajmeri, and Sobhani Ber varieties are more cultivated.

Ber Fruit Farming Cultivation Guide Details

Propagation Method of Ber Fruit:

  • For the production of Ber, the bud of the selected variety is grafted on the rootstock of the native Ber.
  • Generally, for rootstock, choose a native variety or dry ber seeds can also be used.
  • For raising seedlings of Ber, take out the seeds from the ripe fruits and dip them in 17 to 18 percent salt solution, select the seed that settles in the bottom.
  • Carefully remove the nuts from these so as not to damage them and plant them. By doing this the growth is better and faster.
  • Ber seedlings can be raised in two ways.
  • By sowing the seeds directly in the field at a designated place and
  • By raising seedlings in plastic (Poly) bags.

Ber Fruit Farming Cultivation Guide Details

Ber Fruit Farming Cultivation Guide Details


Planting Distance for Ber Fruit Farming:

  • In prepared soil, dig pits at intervals of 6 m x 6 m for non-irrigated crops and at a distance of 8 m x 8 m for irrigated crops.
  • Dig out pits in summer measuring a size of 60 cm. × 60 cm. × 60 cm and let it heat for 15 days.
  • Fill the pit by mixing well-decomposed Farm Yard Manure  (FYM) 15-20 kg manure, Neem Cacke, and Castor Cake, and fill the pit with soil.
  • When the monsoon sets, sow 2-3 seeds at 1.5 to 2.0 cm deep. Allow only the main rhizome to grow from the seed.
  • Cut the plant 4 to 6 cm height from the ground in March, then after a new leg of the vigorous yellow shoots emerges from the rhizome, graft the eye of our choice of Ber on this foot in the month of May-June or graft the rhizome grown in the nursery and plant it at regular intervals in the pit prepared in the field in monsoon.

Ber Fruit Farming Cultivation Guide Details

Eye selection for Ber Fruit Farming

  • Select one-and-a-half month-old shoots after pruning in April month from good quality Ber trees. Choose an eye that is plump and swollen in the leaf compartment of this branch that should be selected for grafting.
  • In the ber, there are shield-shaped, wedge-shaped, and T-shaped rings of planting methods. Among them, choose the method that is more suitable in our area.
  • Generally, the T-shaped method is very popular.

Also Read:Elephant Foot Yam Farming


Ber Fruit Farming Cultivation Guide Details

Planting of Ber:

Plant the prepared cuttings or saplings in pre-prepared pits in July-August in humid rainy weather.

Training and Pruning of Ber Fruit:

Ber Cultivation is a very important task right from the beginning after transplanting the graft in the field.

  • First of all provide sufficient support to the graft so that it grows straight throughout the season.
  • The trunk of the grafted plant from the first year itself should be 60 to 75 cm above the ground to keep the shape of the tree symmetrical.
  • Then allow three to four branches to grow in each direction as the main branch on the plant.
  • In the second year, the primary branch should be pruned keeping the portion up to 4 to 5 secondary branches. Thus by the third year, the tree can assume proper shape and structure.
  • Every year the ber fruits sit in the flower, in the leaf chamber of the new branches. Hence Ber tree is pruned every year to get a maximum number of new branches and good production.
  • Ber plant pruning is generally suitable from the second fortnight of April to the first fortnight of May.
  • Pruning should be done by making a few cuts with a sharp chise,l so as not to burst the bark of the branch. Apply board paste over the cut-open portion to avoid further infection.
  • Collect and burn dry branches and diseased ber residues from the field after pruning. Then plow the field. Remove branches that sprout from the top of the plant.
  • At the time of the emergence of new shoots, there is a lot of pest infestation. Also, remove branches that penetrate each other.

Ber Fruit Farming Cultivation Guide Details

Ber Fruit Farming Cultivation Guide Details

Also Read:Indian Bean Farming


Nutrition Management in Ber Fruit Farming

  • Add nutrient requirement of Ber crops in the form of organic fertilizers i.e. well decomposed Farm Yard manure, earthworm manure, cow dung, and organic matter, etc.
  • Apart from this, Karanj, Neem, or Castor cake can also be used.
  • To increase soil fertility, apply organic fertilizers in the following amounts.
  • Give organic fertilizers to an adult tree 10 years or older as follows.
  • Manure: 50 kg/ tree
  • Compost: 10 kg/ tree
  • Vermicompost: 5 kg/ tree
  • Phosphobacter: 15 g/tree
  • Poultry Manure: 1 kg/ tree
  • Trichoderma: 50 g/tree
  • Azotobacter: 15 g/tree
  • Castor cake: 2.50 kg/ tree
  • Each tree should be fertilized with organic fertilizers in monsoon (June-July) at a distance of 1.5 to 2 meters, 30 to 40 cm deep from the trunk by making a wide ring around the tree and covering it with soil.
  • Organic mulching in Ber also has great benefits in terms of nutrients and soil improvement.
  • Organic matter for mulching like, dry leaves, straw, various crop residues, and easily available field materials should be used.
  • Dry grass leaves and stalks of produce like wheat, paddy chaff should be used. There are many benefits of using organic matter such as, it prevents soil erosion and water runoff. Forms the structure of particles in the soil.
  • By increasing the porosity of the soil, the oxygen content in the soil increases. Stores nutrients in the soil. It converts inorganic elements into target forms, also controls changes in soil temperature, and increases soil moisture storage capacity.Improves saline and alkaline soils. While pest and weed control is also done well.

Ber Fruit Farming Cultivation Guide Details

Irrigation Management in Ber Fruit

  • After the ber has grown, it needs very little water. It can also be cultivated without irrigation. More production can be obtained if an irrigation facility is available.
  • Give two-three irrigation to Ber usually from October to January/February.
  • Drip method gives more fruit production and also saves water.

Ber Fruit Farming Cultivation Guide Details

Inter cultivation and Weed Management:

  • Generally, after pruning in summer, collect dry branches, weeds and fallen dry ber from the field and harrowing should be done so the pupae of the Insect are buried in the soil and destroyed.
  • Inter cultivation with hoe 1-2 times as required to control weeds in monsoon.
  • After the end of the monsoon, intercropping should be done to retain moisture in the soil.
  • To keep the field free from weeds using hoeing, carry out two to three inter cultivation in the furrows around the plant in round shape.

Ber Fruit Farming Cultivation Guide Details

Intercropping:

  • After sowing seedlings/cuttings in the field, short-term vegetables and pulses crops can be planted only during the Kharif season for the first three years.

Mulching:

  • Sow Sun hemp 20 to 25 kg or Dhaincha 10 to 15 kg per hectare as green manuring in ber garden and pressing it into the soil after 45 days can increase soil fertility at all.

Ber Fruit Farming Cultivation Guide Details

Ber Fruit Farming Cultivation Guide Details

Crop protection

  1. Pest control system
  1. Fruit fly
  • Fruit fly infestation is observed in the orchard from the time, when fruits are pea size to the maturity stage.
  • The fruit fly lays eggs in the fruit and hatching from the eggs, damages the fruit.
  • During the summer, after pruning the tree in April-May, occasional shallow plowing or hoeing with a trowel can destroys the eggs of the mealy bug and the pupae of the fruit fly.
  • Bury  infested fruits with fruit flies in a pit deeper than one foot.
  • Killing male fruit flies using pheromone traps. Setting one trap per 10 trees and changing the trap after 90 days.
  • Trap must be used from December-January till fruiting.
  • Sow Black tulsi around field and when fruit flies are found on it, spray 5% solution (500 g/10 liters) made from Neem seed kernel at weekly intervals for effective control of fruit fly.
  1. B) Disease Control in Ber Fruit Farming
  • Powdery mildew:
  • This disease is more common in humid or cloudy climates.
  • A white layer is formed on the fruit. Small fruits also drop due to this disease.
  • The disease can controlled successfully by spraying Karathane (0.05%), Bavistin (0.05%) or wettable S (0.2%) at 10-day intervals.

Also Read: Artemisia Farming


Ber Fruit Farming Cultivation Guide Details

Ber Fruit Farming Cultivation Guide Details

Fruit picking stage

  • Harvest is done when the color of the fruit changes to yellowish. Harvest the ripe fruit by hand and sending it for immediate sale.

Yield of Ber Fruit

  • About 80-100 kg from irrigated trees if given good care.
  • While 50 to 70 kg from un-irrigated trees can be obtained.

Ber Fruit Farming Guide-Cultivation Details

Also Read: Agnihotra Farming


Summary:

Ber Fruit, also known as Ziziphus mauritiana, is a popular fruit in India with medicinal properties. It is grown for raw eating and has various regional names in different states. Ber Fruit is rich in vitamin C, bone strength, blood circulation, anti-oxidants, immunity, digestion, piles, hair loss, wrinkles, cancer, weight loss, and anti-inflammatory properties.

It prefers hot summer and cool and dry winter climates and grows about 1000 meters above sea level. Ber Fruit can be grown in sandy, loamy, and well-drained soils with a pH value of 7.0 to 7.5. There are around 125 species of Ber Fruit in India, with Umran, Gola, Sev, Mehroon, Ajmeri, and Sobhani Ber varieties being more cultivated. Propagation involves grafting the bud of the selected variety onto the rootstock of the native Ber, using native or dry ber seeds.

Seedlings can be raised by sowing seeds directly in the field or in plastic bags. Ber fruit farming involves digging pits at 6 m x 6 m intervals for non-irrigated crops and 8 m x 8 m for irrigated crops. Training and pruning are crucial for a symmetrical tree’s shape, and pruning should be done every year between the second fortnight of April and the first fortnight of May.

Nutrition management in Ber fruit farming includes adding organic fertilizers, mulching, and intercropping to improve soil fertility, prevent erosion, water runoff, and increase oxygen content. Short-term vegetables and pulses crops can be planted during the Kharif season, and sun hemp or Dhaincha can be used as green manuring in ber gardens.

Crop protection and pest control systems are essential. Fruit picking occurs when the fruit changes color to yellowish, with yields ranging from 80-100 kg for irrigated trees and 50-70 kg for un-irrigated trees.


Ber Fruit Farming Cultivation Guide Details

FAQs:

1. What is the scientific name of Ber?

Scientific name of Ber is Ziziphus mauritiana.

2. Which states grow ber fruit in India?

Ans. UP,Gujarat,Rajasthan, MP, Haryana, Maharastra etc are the major ber growing states in India.

3. What is the climate requirement for ber cultivation?

Ans. Ber prefers hot summer and cool and dry climates in winter.It can grow about 1000 m above sea level. Ber sheds its leaves in summer and remains dormant, so it can withstand heavy waterlogging in the hot summer. Hence it can grow in arid as well as semi-arid areas,When the temperature drops below the freezing point in winter, the fruit and shoots are damaged.

4. What are the varieties of ber in India?

Ans. Umran, Gola, Sev, Mehroon, Ajmeri, and Sobhani Ber

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