Basic Steps of Organic Farming, Methods and Benefits

Basic Steps of Organic Farming, Methods and Benefits

Basic Steps of Organic Farming, Methods and Benefits

What is organic Farming?:

Organic farming is a method of obtaining production without the use of chemical fertilizers, pesticides and other chemicals, using organic fertilizers, mixed cropping, crop rotation, maintaining the fertility of the soil by greening, conservation of natural pest and disease control insects and weed control without the use of chemicals. In which more production is not the goal but quality production without chemical residue is given importance.

Advantages of Organic Farming

Organic farming improves the physical, chemical and biological condition of the soil. Soil fertility and productivity increase progressively.

Organic farming helps in maintaining soil moisture. Water percolation is good in such soil. This prevents the water from running off the soil, thus preventing soil erosion.

Organic farming provides favorable conditions for crops. Hence resistance to diseases and pests develops.

Unnecessary agricultural waste and agricultural by-products can be put to optimum use.

There is no special extra cost for organic farming.

Basic Steps of Organic Farming, Methods and Benefits

Three types of farmers adopt organic farming in our country and world.

1) In the first category, organic farming is a part of life for farmers who cultivate in low-input zones and one who practices this type of farming in a traditional way.

2) Other types of farmers who have recently adopted this type of farming system are driven by declining soil fertility resulting in higher input prices and lower returns.

3) Third type of farmers who have adopted organic farming professionally.

Agriculture has been adopted due to good price of organic farming and preference in market system. The side effects of agrochemicals, especially pesticides, herbicides, chemical fertilizers, low returns in agriculture and the awareness among farmers about the side effects of chemical farming have also increased people’s inclination towards organic farming.

Basic Steps of Organic Farming, Methods and Benefits

Here are some important points to consider before starting organic farming. Before delving into this matter, let’s look at the details of what matters are important.

1) Knowledge of traditional and scientific methods of organic farming.

2) Creating infrastructure for organic farming.

3) Selection of seeds and crops in organic farming.

4) Nutrient management in organic farming.

5) Disease control measures.

6) Pest control measures.

7) Weed control and

8) People’s market system of organic farming.

Basic Steps of Organic Farming, Methods and Benefits

1)Knowledge of traditional and scientific methods of organic farming.

  • Years ago, we had traditional and inherited knowledge of farming without chemical fertilizers and chemicals. This inherited knowledge knew all the resources needed in agriculture including agricultural implements, fertilizers, seeds and methods of pest control.
  • In order to control the diseases and pests, the crops are harvested only in their season, so the crops are harvested naturally in those times without pest infestation.
  • Make seeds at home and use healthy seeds. To understand this matter specifically, Eggplant, chilli and tomato crops were planted in the winter season. Eggplant and chillies are never planted in summer or monsoon season. Eggplant, chilli and tomato do not require special pest control during the winter season.
  • In particular, two times more fertilizer was used in vegetable crops than normal crops Even in wheat at present all the varieties are immune, if planted after 15-20 November in winter, no diseases and pests occur and the production is also good.
  • Every monsoon crop should be sown before June 15. Crops are sown according to the requirement of rain and the probability of rain.
  • Sesame, millet, pulses in low rainfall areas; Groundnuts are grown in moderate rainfall.
  • Apart from this, cotton was planted in monsoon in areas where moisture is retained in the soil. In this matter, farming was done by coinciding with certain seasons and crops.
  • The methods of harvesting, drying and storage of crops were also well known in traditional knowledge. After grading, cleaning and properly drying the agricultural materials, they were kept in an earthen drum in a cool place without moisture, mixed with neem leaves etc (for pulses) etc.
  • Storing wheat and chickpeas in their straw provides protection against moisture and pests.
  • This matter is specially mentioned because such traditional methods are still useful to maintain in organic farming without use of insecticides-pesticides-chemical fertilizers.

Basic Steps of Organic Farming, Methods and Benefits

Knowledge of scientific methodology

  • Scientific approach and knowledge about crop management, pest control, and nutritional requirements are essential in the scientific work method.
  • It is important to know which crops can be grown in climatic areas that are not naturally pest-infested.
  • A definite period of crop cultivation according to season e.g. November 15 to 25 is the best time for sowing wheat.
  • Knowledge of the scientific significance of this particular time is of particular benefit.
  • Organic farming should be practiced in all crops of the year. There is no one-size-fits-all crop. Yes, if rain-fed agriculture is practiced, only monsoon crops have to be managed.
  • Research in agriculture has resulted in working methods for nutrition and pest control as well as necessary inputs like organic fertilizers, pest controllers. Using this wisely will definitely benefit you.
  • A lot of agricultural research has been done in this direction since last decade.
  • Scientific study and knowledge of diseases and pests can give a definite direction for their control and if advance planning is done, the damage caused by these can be avoided.
  • A classic example of this is the powdery mildew problem in peanuts. The use of light cages when planting groundnuts, if properly arranged over a large area, gives better results than any chemical treatment.
  • Cotton bollworm can also be controlled by pheromone traps in this way.
  • In-soil crop rotation, green cover and cage cropping systems do not provide control with chemicals or insecticides.
  • Groundnut bollworm can be eradicated by cotton for two to three years.
  • Among soil-borne diseases, especially blight in chickpeas, the control achieved by jute planting is unmatched by any other method.
  • Thus scientific understanding becomes the cornerstone of the modern era of organic farming.

Basic Steps of Organic Farming, Methods and Benefits

Basic Steps of Organic Farming, Methods and Benefits

2)Establishment of infrastructure for organic farming

  • When organic farming is adopted, the infrastructure for it can be done in two ways.
  • Collectively: If the entire area adopts the matter.
  • Personal cultivation.
  • First of all, if this work is to be done collectively, it is a very good thing. Market system can be harmonized if agricultural inputs are available in certain quantity. Resources needed for agriculture can be brought collectively and costs reduced.
  • Certain types of plant-based pesticides can be used collectively with individual responsibility. This can be done very easily where collective action is required to control the pest.
  • If all these things are done by an individual or a single farmer, it will be very difficult and he will be isolated against a group.
  • An important factor in the infrastructure of organic farming is land. Organically farmed soil should be free from chemicals or matter that inhibits organic farming.
  • In the beginning three or four years of residual effects of agricultural chemicals have to be removed. In all these matters water is of particular importance.
  • Ground or other water sources should be absolutely free of objectionable chemicals of any kind. That means organic farming cannot be done in such infrastructure especially in industrial area whose chemicals are coming into water or soil or water source.
  • Even if chemical processes are used in agriculture in nearby fields, there is some degree of hindrance. Small and large facilities or resources have to be maintained for making fertilizers, pesticides, vermicomposting, Farm yard manure etc. used in agriculture.
  • In order not to get any kind of chemicals in all these matters, the use of secondary produce like straw, waste etc. in the crop should also be understood.
  • In agricultural land where conventional agriculture is practiced, the land can be converted to organic farming with very minor changes in the soil.

Basic Steps of Organic Farming, Methods and Benefits

3)Selection of seeds and crops in organic farming

  • In organic farming, let us first discuss crop selection, select the crop that is suitable for the area and is to be sown in a traditional manner.
  • In some part of India and world, groundnut, cotton, wheat, mustard, sesame, millet in crops, sapota, lemon in fruits and, coriander, chilli, turmeric, cumin, brinjal etc in vegetables can be harvested without the use of any kind of insecticide or fungicide due to the suitability of the environment.
  • There is no problem of pests and diseases in semi-winter and summer millets. About three times the production of monsoon as well as protection against monsoon rains.
  • The quality of millet is also excellent. There is no question of this in sesame especially black sesame which has a very low incidence of disease and which spoils in heavy rains.
  • Some variety of black sesame is very safe for organic farming. Yes, it ripens a little late, but the prices of black sesame seeds are also good.
  • Sucking pest and powdery mildew disease occurs in Mustard in all the parts of India and world. Both diseases can be well controlled with neem seeds extract.
  • Thus organic farming is easily achieved by providing only organic and safe sources of nutrients in the above mentioned crops.
  • The seeds to be selected in organic farming do not contain any genetically modified crops. We do not have any genetically modified crops other than cotton, so we will not discuss this specifically. But especially in the crop and its variety that you choose, it is a primary requirement to have good resistance to diseases.
  • The seeds should be prepared as per the prescribed norms in the area where the crop is organically cultivated. The storage of seeds can be protected against pests by creating a special place in the greenhouses.
  • By traditional methods only seeds specially protected with neem leaves etc. can be used. The most important thing is that whatever variety we choose should be good in quality and taste, then people will be motivated to pay a little more money to adopt organic farming.
  • Briefly, in organic farming, all the arrangements should be made by fixing the crop calendar for the whole year. In this calendar it is necessary to alternate between grains and pulses.

Basic Steps of Organic Farming, Methods and Benefits

Basic Steps of Organic Farming, Methods and Benefits

4)Nutrient management in organic farming

  • Successful harvesting of any crop requires nutrition. Nutrition consists of major and minor elements. The main elements are nitrogen, phosphorus and potash. Secondary elements include Sulphur, iron, manganese, zinc, copper, boron etc. These are called trace elements which are required in minute amounts.
  • These elements have to be supplied from natural sources. If natural elements have been chemically processed, they cannot be used in organic farming.
  • Among the natural sources, compost or Farm yard manure comes first, followed by green manure and then vermicompost etc.
  • Apart from this, Organic fertilizers include bacteria, azospirillum, azotobacter etc.
  • Use of Azospirillum, Azotobacter for nitrogen supplementation in bacterial culture.
  • In addition to phosphorus solubilizing bacteria, mycorrhizae are used to supply phosphorus. Pseudomonas, Bacillus etc. species of bacteria are very useful. All these are the sources of organic fertilizers. It comes in liquid or powder form, but the special thing about this is that if we are using biological components in that area, if it is a bio fertilizer prepared from a good strain of bacteria in that area, we will get very good results.
  • This is scientifically called “native strain”. Bio fertilizer is a living thing so the fresher the better. Keeping all these things in mind, some agricultural universities of India are selling large quantities of bio fertilizers in liquid and powder form at reasonable price and care is taken for quality also.
  • Crop residues that are widely available for use after harvest. By mixing all these in the soil in appropriate size pieces or lumps, the amount of organic elements and especially carbon can be increased well.
  • Apart from this, by adding organic elements to the soil, useful micro-organisms, fungi etc. grow by giving a lot of food, which provide the plants with access to the rare nutrients in the soil.
  • Crop residue application method, desi compost method, NADEF method etc. are available. If it is used very well, detailed information is available and it can be studied further.
  • Methods for mixing cotton stalks, wheat husk, paddy straw, etc. have been developed by the Agricultural University. All these crop residues to be incorporated into the soil are by-products of organic farming. If it is brought from outside or it is not cultivated organically, it will not work.
  • In addition to nutrients, desi compost improves soil structure and improves moisture storage capacity. Gypsum is a good alternative to supplement calcium and Sulphur.
  • It is also important to know how to use bio fertilizer. Thus for organic farming, organic manure should be made by itself.

Basic Steps of Organic Farming, Methods and Benefits

5)Disease control measures.

  • Pest control is an important aspect of organic farming. This alone prevents most of the farmers from adopting organic farming. Apart from the basis of belief, it is very important that a scientific approach is adopted for pest control.
  • We have discussed earlier that preference should be given to areas where naturally pest-free crops grow. Resistant varieties are particularly important so that pest control problems can be largely avoided.

Briefly, we will discuss disease control first.

Disease control measures in organic farming.

  •  Sow healthy disease free seeds in disease free area.
  •  Sowing and harvesting of crops at favorable times.
  •  Physical measures for disease control.
  • Prevention of disease using different components of biocontrol.
  • Spraying of plant-borne, safe disease controllers.

Disease control requires knowledge of the pathogen, its life cycle, damage to the crop, ability of the pathogen to survive in the absence of the crop, etc. with a scientific approach. Preventing the disease from occurring i.e. not allowing the disease to occur is much easier and more practical than controlling the disease after it occurs. We will discuss in detail.

Basic Steps of Organic Farming, Methods and Benefits

a) Sowing healthy, disease free seeds in disease free area

  • As discussed earlier, due to the climatic conditions in some areas where the disease is not observed in crops, such areas can be harvested safely. Certain soil types are such that they do not allow soil borne diseases to occur. E.g. Due to flooding of the soil in some area during monsoon, the soil borne fungus Fusarium is completely destroyed. Most soil-borne fungi are destroyed by prolonged waterlogging in this way.
  • Fungal or other diseases can spread through seeds in such areas. For this, disease-free healthy seeds should be planted. Loose smut in wheat can be seen through seeds, especially if brought from North India, but the climatic conditions in India do not allow this disease to occur in seeds.
  • This problem can be avoided by keeping in mind the selection of soil etc. while producing the seeds in this organic farming.

b) Planting of crops in suitable period

  • We harvest all the suitable crops in all three seasons. Based on the experience and scientific studies of winter, summer and monsoon years, the planting period of these three season crops is fixed. November 15 to 25 for winter crops, June 15 to 25 for monsoon crops is very favorable.
  • If planted in this period, the crop can be harvested without any disease and pest infestation. In this way, if sesame is planted in summer (last week of February and first week of March), sesame can be harvested well. There are no pest problems. So it is very important to maintain the right time of planting. Sesame quality also improves. This matter should be specially considered and implemented when taking other crops. The time of harvest is fixed when the crop is ripe. Due to slight weather changes, it may be delayed by 5 to 10 days, but it is very important to do the harvesting only when the seeds are seen according to the harvest to ensure that each crop is ripe. This will improve the quality of agriculture crops.

c) Mechanical methods for disease control

  • In this method, the heat of the sun, plowing deep in the soil. Irrigation to prevent soil borne diseases in high rainfall areas. Keeping the water full will create an aerobic environment and destroy the dormant and dead parts of the pathogenic fungi.
  • The heat of the sun inhibits the growth of fungi and bacteria and the heat of summer heats the soil in the heat of the sun to kill some of these pathogens. The disease is not observed in the following season. Planting Mooth along with cotton does not cause drought in cotton. Here the soil temperature being controlled (low) is not favorable to the pathogenic fungi and hence this practice is very important in protecting cotton against wilt disease.
  • In cumin crop, ground water should be properly drained. Along with keeping the soil level and moderate number of plants in small plots, keeping the environment dry and humidity controlled improves cumin. In many other crops, the disease can be controlled by keeping air, light, and number of plants in moderation.
  • Using solar heat, especially in the crops that need to be raised, solarization process can effectively destroy all soil borne disease pathogens. Along with this, the amount of microorganisms and fungi in the soil due to high temperature increases in high temperature. This type of fungus is beneficial to crops.
  • In this method, transparent plastic is applied in the early morning in an air-tight manner when the soil is saturated with sufficient moisture. This procedure is done from the last week of April to the first week of May when the temperature rises above 40 degree centigrade. Fungi, germs and worms are destroyed by this method.
  • This can be used especially in greenhouses where soil pests can be controlled. Adding soil improvers like gypsum, sand, mooram soil etc. to the soil can improve water retention and prevent disease.

Basic Steps of Organic Farming, Methods and Benefits

Basic Steps of Organic Farming, Methods and Benefits

d) Use of different bio control agents for disease prevention

  • Biological control is the control of diseases by using bacteria and fungi that can control pathogenic fungi and bacteria. At present, the use of Trichoderm harzianum fungus is very common among the farmers for the control of groundnut white fungus (Scarocium rolfci).
  • The use of Pseudomonas fluorescens can provide good control of seed-borne pathogens. Application of Trichoderma harzianum and Pseudomonas fluorescens improves crop growth and health by benefiting crop nutrition system. Remedies can be taken by understanding that biocontrol agents for different diseases are different according to crops. Particular care is required in the purchase and use of these biocontrol additives which will be discussed here.
  • Be very careful about the quality of any biocontrol resources you buy. All these are living ingredients so consume only knowing that they have a certain period of consumption.
  • Excellent products are marketed by agricultural universities in the India and world. Some university sold various bio control agents to the farmer are of very good quality and are manufactured and distributed under laboratory testing and quality assurance.
  • It is produced and sold fresh as per the requirement of the farmers, so fungus and sufficient amount of bacteria should be available.
  • The farmer is also given complete information on how to use these bio-controllers in the crop. This information or instruction is based on the results of the research and its full benefit can be obtained only if it is used judiciously. When taking such products home, keep them in a cool place where the temperature is around 20° centigrade. Heat reduces the number of fungi or bacteria. Take special care to avoid direct sunlight.

Basic Steps of Organic Farming, Methods and Benefits

e) Spraying of plant based Insecticides

  • When a disease occurs in a crop, it is controlled by taking the plant extract with water in a certain quantity. The number of diseases controlled by such plants is very less.
  • One should know which herb is recommended for which crop and which disease. Only1 to 2 percent solution of plant extracts is to be sprayed.
  • Why make this solution? How to use it is very important to know etc.
  • Neem leaf extract in herbs, garlic extract is effective against many crop pathogens especially foliar and soil borne plant diseases.
  • Spraying of 1% extract of neem leaves has been found effective in control of weevil and geranium and leaf blight in groundnut.
  • Here the leaves or other parts of the plant, if the extract is used, should also be a product of organic farming.
  • Plant extracts or plants that are poisonous and harmful to humans should not be used for disease control under any circumstances. This can cause harm to the user and its components in the product causing such problems.

Basic Steps of Organic Farming, Methods and Benefits

6)Pest control measures

  • Use of agricultural chemicals is prohibited in organic farming. No chemical pesticides are used. Pest control is also one of the main reasons why organic farming is not growing at present.
  • Much the same types of disease control measures seen earlier can be adopted in pest control, planting in suitable climatic conditions, season and crop selection, soil fertility, physical pest control measures can be useful.
  • Currently biological control, pheromone trap and light trap, stick trap are very useful options in organic farming. Traps for fruit flies in mango, vegetables, and fruit crops are adopted by farmers even if they are not cultivating organically. This method is very simple, effective and relatively cheap. Knowledge of specific traps to be used for different types of caterpillars etc should also be acquired.
  • The use of fungi and bacteria for pest control is very old. At present its prevalence has increased well among many farmers. In India, the farmers used a lot of Bavaria fungus in cotton this year as well. Especially the control of sucker type insects by spraying this fungus has been found to be very effective in cotton.
  • Some Agricultural University has made available to the farmers different products for excellent biocontrol. Virus based products are also marketed. Trico cards etc. are also placed for sugarcane. Literature for the use of these types of biological controllers is also provided. In what environment, when to use are all useful and important for pest control.
  • Other methods include deep ploughing, heating the soil by summer ploughing, which destroys the pupa of insects. In the physical methods plastic wrap has been discussed earlier, here only the basics of the subject are pointed out.
  • Crops and specific pest control methods are available in organic farming. It is also written in a language that farmers can easily understand. All these methods, if used in relation to the local situation, would have definite benefits.

Basic Steps of Organic Farming, Methods and Benefits

7)Weed control

  • Weed control in organic farming is currently a critical issue in the face of shortage of farm labour. Manual control of weeds increases costs and reduces returns. Even this is not easy to manage. However, blight can be controlled in organic farming without the use of chemicals. For this knowledge and logic according to the situation should be used to control condemnation.
  • In organic farming, more emphasis is placed on weeds reduction than weed control. High density plantation means increasing the number of plants per unit to prevent weedsn. Contamination is controlled due to growth of wheat in dark planting of wheat.
  • Planting crops in close rows also helpful in weed control.
  • Control of blight by plowing in crops planted at the right time in India and rest world.
  • Farmers control blight very well with harrows in the monsoon season in India. Only the weed has to be removed from the row of peanuts. Deep tillage is useful in the soil where there is more calamity, because the seeds of calamity lying in the upper surface of the soil are destroyed by going deep into the soil.
  • In standing crops, different types of mulches are also easy to prevent blight on the ground. Irrigation using leaves, other crop residues, etc., especially for fruit crops, does not conserve water or block sunlight. This gives a double benefit.
  • Crop residues are incorporated into the soil and increase soil organic matter content, increasing soil fertility and drainage. Application of crop residues to agricultural crops in summer can also keep the soil temperature low. Contamination is also controlled.
  • Currently, polyethylene sheets are also used to cover the ground. The use of silver color polyethylene sheet has increased a lot in water melons, cotton etc. This coating reduces the accumulation of insects on the lower surface of the leaf. All kinds of farm work can be avoided by adopting this practice after sowing the crop. Water saving indeed.
  • Weed control can be done using this technique considering the general situation.
  • Soil erosion can be controlled by improving soil structure. Especially in heavy black soils and soils with low fertility, the use of peat and sand improves soil drainage. The indirect benefit of this is especially intercropping by different implements. If the soil is full, the slander can be removed very easily.
  • Filling Muram soil in India makes farming tasks easier in groundnut after sowing.
  • After taking the main crop in the field, if there is time, the soil should be planted with green manure crops. There is no better alternative to green manuring in organic farming for disease, pest, crop nutrition, soil fertility and pest control.
  • Green manuring before sowing of castor, pigeon pea in monsoons solves most of the problems of weeding and soil fertility etc.
  • Before sowing winter crops like wheat, sugarcane, etc., green manuring cultivation can be done in September to October to reduce winter crop blight. Most of the problems can be relieved in organic farming by applying green manuring even once a year.
  • Weeds should be removed before flowering. At the stage of ripening of the crop, weeds should also be collected and disposed. This will reduce the pest infestation in the coming season. Smaller hand tools are also found to be useful in removing the weeds between two narrow rows. With this, two and a half to three times more weeds can be done than with
  • Small machine driven weeders are also available in the market. This can lead to one-person can run this very quickly, especially in row crops. The price may seem high at first time.
  • Biological control methods of blight are now being developed, which may also be exploited in the future.

Basic Steps of Organic Farming, Methods and Benefits

8)People’s market system of organic farming

  • Human market system is a very important aspect in organic farming. A chain has to be created from the producer to the consumer.
  • The sale of organic farming products is not a public auction sale in the marketing yard as in the normal market system.
  • Similarly, everything has been implemented and produced or not? What is the local usage of what is there? Organic farming can be made successful in two ways, its knowledge etc. is necessary.
  • All the farmers in the unit area should adopt this method.
  • Organic farming should be sold collectively. This gives flexibility to the customers by making these types of products available in bulk.
  • Agricultural produce from conventional farming can be sold directly in the market, but value addition should be done as a special care in organic farming. That means packaging after cleaning. These products cannot be stored until they are ready for consumption by pests, or such products cannot be stored with preservation restrictions. It is very important that this should be done by a certified, recognized and trusted organization to gain the trust of the people.
  • Registration is to be done for organic products sale in the public market. The major benefit of this registration to the farmers is that an outside company or other big company or organization can purchase organic farming people trust.
  • Customer confidence is the most important thing in a market system. Today, the wider community wants to buy and consume organic farming at a slightly higher price. They require quality and organic farming practices free from agrochemicals. The prevalence of this matter is going to increase in the coming days.
  • Currently, some of these types of people are selling in the malls for the market system. How products like vegetables and milk reach the consumer and increase the prevalence is a challenge. If such cultivation is done near the urban area, the market will be easily available. If there is a collective spirit, there will be ease of sale. Even if the arrangement is possible, each individual cannot do all the activities simultaneously.
  • Here the aspects of organic farming are elaborated. It is only as a guideline. Organic farming can be progressed with a certain scientific attitude, personal interest and harmony with nature towards organic farming.
  • The Agriculture Department, Government of India and the Agriculture University are also active in increasing the prevalence of organic farming.

Basic Steps of Organic Farming, Methods and Benefits

Basic Steps of Organic Farming, Methods and Benefits


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